Apprenticeship

apprenticeapprenticedapprenticesdiscipleapprenticeshipsarticledapprenticingdisciplesapprenticeship systemModern Apprenticeship
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).wikipedia
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Journeyman

journeymenjourneypersonGesellenprüfung
People who successfully complete an apprenticeship reach the "journeyman" or professional certification level of competence.
A journeyman is a skilled worker who has successfully completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or craft.

Tradesman

tradesmentradespersontrade
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
One study of Caversham, New Zealand at the turn of the century notes that a skilled trade was considered a trade that required an apprenticeship to entry.

Trade union

unionlabor uniontrade unionist
Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system often do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor.
Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices or the unemployed.

Training

traineestrainedtrainee
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics).

Dual education system

apprenticeshipDual Educationdual
Apprenticeship training in Austria is organized in a dual education system: company-based training of apprentices is complemented by compulsory attendance of a part-time vocational school for apprentices (Berufsschule).
A dual education system combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.

Guild

guildstrade guildcraft guild
Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system often do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor.
Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor, production and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to craftsman, and then from journeyman eventually to widely recognized master and grandmaster began to emerge.

Electrician

electricianselectrical technicianelectrical
Some crafts, such as electrician, are educated in lengths of 3 and 4 years.
Training of electricians follows an apprenticeship model, taking four or five years to progress to fully qualified journeyman level.

2006 youth protests in France

2006 labor protests in France2006 labour protests in Francestudents and unions' protests
This measure has long been a policy of conservative French political parties, and was met by tough opposition from trade unions and students.
The bill also included the possibility of manual labour apprenticeships for 14-year-olds, suspension of family welfare in cases of students skipping school (a measure long in the programme of the far-right National Front party), and night labour being permitted for youths as young as 15 years old (as compared to 16 years old before).

First Employment Contract

CPEContrat première embaucheanti-CPE crisis
Dubbed "law on equality of chances", it created the First Employment Contract as well as manual apprenticeship from as early as 14 years of age.
Among them, allowing apprenticeships from as young as 14 years old (allowing a youth to leave the standard public education system), night work from the age of 15 (instead of 16 now) and suspension of certain type of welfare measures (families with more than three children have the right to some governmental financial support in France) when students skip school.

Indenture

indenturedindenturesindenturing
Apprentice's families would sometimes pay a "premium" or fee to the craftsman and the contract would usually be recorded in a written indenture.
An indenture is a legal contract between two parties, particularly for indentured labour or a term of apprenticeship but also for certain land transactions.

Skilled worker

skilled workerstalentskilled
Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system often do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor.
Apprenticeship - (Examples: carpenter, electrician, mason, mechanic, plumber, technician, welder)

Optician

opticiansdispensing opticianoptical engineer
They include for example doctor's assistant, banker, dispensing optician, plumber or oven builder.
Other opticians can apprentice to learn the required skills.

Realschule

OberrealschuleRealschule plusrealskola
Realschule and Gymnasium graduates usually have better chances for being accepted as an apprentice for sophisticated craft professions or apprenticeships in white-collar jobs in finance or administration.
They can also attend a Berufsschule or do an apprenticeship.

Vocational education

vocational trainingvocationalvocational education and training
Subsequently, governmental regulation and the licensing of technical colleges and vocational education formalized and bureaucratized the details of apprenticeship.
Vocational education can take place at the post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the apprenticeship system.

Compulsory trade

compulsory trades
In Canada, each province has its own apprenticeship program, which may be the only route into jobs within compulsory trades.
In general, a formal training program such as an apprenticeship is required, and a practitioner must be certified as a journeyperson prior to licensure.

Apprenticeship Levy

From April 2017 an Apprenticeship Levy has been in place to fund apprenticeships.
The Apprenticeship Levy is a UK tax on employers which can be used to fund apprenticeship training.

Vocational school

trade schoolvocationalcareer college
Depending on the profession, they may work for three to four days a week in the company and then spend one or two days at a vocational school (Berufsschule). This is usually the case for trade and craftspeople.
In the Middle Ages boys learned a vocation through an apprenticeship.

Statute of Artificers 1563

Statute of Artificers and ApprenticesArtificers and apprenticesStatute of Artificers
In 1563, the Statute of Artificers and Apprentices was passed to regulate and protect the apprenticeship system, forbidding anyone from practising a trade or craft without first serving a 7-year period as an apprentice to a master (though in practice Freemen's sons could negotiate shorter terms).
The Act controlled entry into the class of skilled workmen by providing a compulsory seven years' apprenticeship, reserved the superior trades for the sons of the better off, empowered justices to require unemployed artificers to work in husbandry, required permission for a workman to transfer from one employer to another and empowered justices to fix wage rates for virtually all classes of workmen.

National Apprenticeship Act

Apprenticeship programs in the United States are regulated by the Smith–Hughes Act (1917), The National Industrial Recovery Act (1933), and National Apprenticeship Act, also known as the "Fitzgerald Act."
The National Apprenticeship Act (also known as the Fitzgerald Act), is a federal law in the United States which regulates apprenticeship and on-the-job training programs.

School-to-work transition

school to workSchool-to-Worktransition to work
In the United States, education officials and nonprofit organizations who seek to emulate the apprenticeship system in other nations have created school to work education reforms.
School-to-work transition is a phrase referring to on-the-job training, apprenticeships, cooperative education agreements or other programs designed to prepare students to enter the job market.

Skills Funding Agency

Government funding agencies (in England, the Skills Funding Agency) contract with "learning providers" to deliver apprenticeships, and may accredit them as a National Skills Academy.
Its scope included apprenticeships and adult education; it also implemented initiatives funded by the European Social Fund.

Further education

further education collegefurtherFE
Providers are usually private training companies but might also be further education colleges, voluntary sector organisations, Chambers of Commerce or employers themselves.
The colleges are also a large provider of apprenticeships, where most of the training takes place in the apprentices' workplace with some day release into college.

Engineering technologist

engineering technologytechnologistIncorporated Engineer
The exception to this was in the high technology engineering areas of aerospace, chemicals, nuclear, automotive, power and energy systems where apprentices continued to served the structured four- to five-year programmes of both practical and academic study to qualify as engineering technician or Incorporate Engineer (engineering technologist) and go on to earn a master of engineering degree and qualify as a Chartered Engineer (UK); the UK gold standard engineering qualification.
A certified engineering technologist is usually required to apprentice for a term before being able to apply for certification through a local governing body.

Internship

interninternshipsinterns
The modern concept of an internship is similar to an apprenticeship but not as rigorous.
Internships for professional careers are similar in some ways, but not as rigorous as apprenticeships for professions, trade, and vocational jobs.

Master craftsman

mastercraftsmancraftsmen
A master craftsman was entitled to employ young people as an inexpensive form of labour in exchange for providing food, lodging and formal training in the craft.
An aspiring master would have to pass through the career chain from apprentice to journeyman before he could be elected to become a master craftsman.