Aqueduct (water supply)

aqueductaqueductsconduitTransvasementdiversion canalwater conduitirrigation canalaqueduct pipecanalcanals
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to carry water from a source to a distribution point far away.wikipedia
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Aqueduct (bridge)

aqueductaqueductsaqueduct bridge
The term aqueduct also often refers specifically to a bridge on an artificial watercourse.
The term aqueduct may also be used to refer to the entire watercourse, as well as the bridge.

Canal

canalsnavigationsartificial waterway
In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose. A constructed functional rill is a small canal or aqueduct of stone, brick, concrete, or other lining material, usually rectilinear in cross section, for water transportation from a source such as a river-creek, spring, reservoir, qanat, or aqueduct for domestic consumption or agricultural irrigation of crop land uses.

Puquios

Pukyus
Near the Peruvian town of Nazca, an ancient pre-Columbian system of aqueducts called Puquios were built and are still in use today.
The puquios are an old system of subterranean aqueducts near the city of Nazca, Peru.

Grade (slope)

gradegradientgrades
The best example is the Yoda Ela or Jaya Ganga, an 87 km long water canal carrying excess water between two artificial reservoirs with a gradient of 10 to 20 cm per kilometer during the fifth century AD.
Grades are typically specified for new linear constructions (such as roads, landscape grading, roof pitches, railroads, aqueducts, and pedestrian or bicycle circulation routes).

Samos

Samos IslandSamianSamians
On the island of Samos, the Tunnel of Eupalinos was built during the reign of Polycrates (538-522 BC).
During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance (since being underground, it was not easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply).

Qanat

falajkarezfoggara
In Oman from the Iron Age, in Salut, Bat, and other sites, a system of underground aqueducts called falaj or qanāts were constructed, a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping horizontal tunnels. A constructed functional rill is a small canal or aqueduct of stone, brick, concrete, or other lining material, usually rectilinear in cross section, for water transportation from a source such as a river-creek, spring, reservoir, qanat, or aqueduct for domestic consumption or agricultural irrigation of crop land uses.
A qanat or kariz is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking, acting as an underground aqueduct.

Watercourse

courseriver courseriver's course
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to carry water from a source to a distribution point far away.

Water transportation

water pipelinescommercial transportcommercial transport of water
A constructed functional rill is a small canal or aqueduct of stone, brick, concrete, or other lining material, usually rectilinear in cross section, for water transportation from a source such as a river-creek, spring, reservoir, qanat, or aqueduct for domestic consumption or agricultural irrigation of crop land uses.

Fountain

fountainswater fountainsdrinking fountain
Rills are used as narrow channels of water inset into the pavement of a garden, as linear water features, and often tiled and part of a fountain design.
Fountains were originally purely functional, connected to springs or aqueducts and used to provide drinking water and water for bathing and washing to the residents of cities, towns and villages.

Oamaru

Oamaru, New ZealandMayor of OamaruOamuru
An aqueduct in New Zealand, "the Oamaru Borough Race", was constructed in the late 19th century to deliver water (and water-power) about 50 km from the Waitaki River at Kurow to the coastal town of Oamaru.
A major factor in the near bankruptcy of Oamaru was construction of the "Borough water race", an aqueduct completed after 3 years work in 1880.

South–North Water Transfer Project

South-North Water Transfer ProjectBig Western LineSouth to North Water Transfer
In China, the South–North Water Transfer Project aims to connect the Yangtze River basin to Beijing through three separate systems.
The water will then be pumped by stations along the Grand Canal and through a tunnel under the Yellow River and down an aqueduct to reservoirs near Tianjin.

Valens Aqueduct

Aqueduct of ValensaqueductValens
The Valens Aqueduct (Valens Su Kemeri or Bozdoğan Kemeri, meaning "Aqueduct of the Grey Falcon";, Agōgós tou hýdatos, meaning simply "aqueduct") is a Roman aqueduct which was the major water-providing system of the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey).

Ditch

ditchesdykedykes
The simplest aqueducts are small ditches cut into the earth.
Particularly in Colorado, the term ditch is also applied to open aqueducts that traverse hillsides as part of transbasin diversion projects.

Wignacourt Aqueduct

an aqueductMonument tat-TrombaStatue of Neptune, Valletta
The Wignacourt Aqueduct (L-Akwedott ta' Wignacourt) is a 17th-century aqueduct in Malta, which was built by the Order of Saint John to carry water from springs in Dingli and Rabat to the newly-built capital city Valletta.

Paradise garden

Garden of the ParadisePersian paradise gardenswalled gardens
The historical origins are from paradise garden religious images that first translated into ancient Persian Gardens.
This included gardens watered by an aqueduct – the earliest known record of gravity-fed water rills and basins arranged in a geometric system.

Tunnel of Eupalinos

Eupalinian aqueducttunneltunnel excavated from both ends by scientific calculations
On the island of Samos, the Tunnel of Eupalinos was built during the reign of Polycrates (538-522 BC).
The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct is a tunnel of 1036 m length running through Mount Kastro in Samos, Greece, built in the 6th century BC to serve as an aqueduct.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Aqueducts were used in ancient Greece, ancient Egypt, and ancient Rome.
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to supply water to cities and industrial sites and to aid in their agriculture.

Águas Livres Aqueduct

Aqueduto das Águas LivresAguas Livres AqueductLisbon aqueduct
The Águas Livres Aqueduct (Aqueduto das Águas Livres, "Aqueduct of the Free Waters") is a historic aqueduct in the city of Lisbon, Portugal.

Roquefavour Aqueduct

The Roquefavour Aqueduct (Aqueduc de Roquefavour) is an aqueduct in Ventabren, near Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France.

Canal de l'Aqueduc

Aqueduct CanalCrossings of the Canal de l'Aqueduc
The Canal de l'Aqueduc is an open-air aqueduct canal on the Island of Montreal in Quebec, Canada, serving part of the drinking water needs of the city of Montreal.

Catskill Aqueduct

Catskill
The Catskill Aqueduct carries water to New York City over a distance of 120 miles (190 km), but is dwarfed by aqueducts in the far west of the country, most notably the Colorado River Aqueduct, which supplies the Los Angeles area with water from the Colorado River nearly 400 km to the east and the 701.5 mile California Aqueduct, which runs from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to Lake Perris.
The aqueduct transports water from Ashokan as well as the Schoharie Reservoir, which feeds into Ashokan.

Drought

droughtsdrought reliefdry
The time period in which they were constructed is still debated, but some evidence supports circa A.D. 540–552, in response to drought periods in the region.

Wan Mat Saman Aqueduct

Wan Mat Saman Aqueduct or Terusan Wan Mat Saman is the longest aqueduct in Malaysia.

Central Arizona Project

Central Arizona Project AqueductCentral Arizona Water Conservation DistrictHayden-Rhodes Aqueduct
The Central Arizona Project is the largest and most expensive aqueduct constructed in the United States.
The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is a 336 mi (541 km) diversion canal in Arizona in the United States.

New York City water supply system

New York CityNew York City's water supply systemwater supply system
With three major water systems (Croton, Catskill, and Delaware), New York City's water supply system is a combination of aqueducts, reservoirs, and tunnels that meets the daily needs of New York City's more than eight million residents and its many visitors.