A report on GroundwaterAquifer and Water

An illustration showing groundwater in aquifers (in blue) (1, 5 and 6) below the water table (4), and three different wells (7, 8 and 9) dug to reach it.
Schematic of an aquifer showing confined zones, groundwater travel times, a spring and a well
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Dzherelo, a common source of drinking water in a Ukrainian village
An aquifer cross-section. This diagram shows two aquifers with one aquitard (a confining or impermeable layer) between them, surrounded by the bedrock aquiclude, which is in contact with a gaining stream (typical in humid regions). The water table and unsaturated zone are also illustrated.
The three common states of matter
The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida, going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater
Water in porous aquifers slowly seeps through pore spaces between sand grains
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Groundwater may be extracted through a water well
Water in karst aquifers flows through open conduits where water flows as underground streams
Tetrahedral structure of water
Diagram of a water balance of the aquifer
Map of major US aquifers by rock type
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Iron (III) oxide staining (after water capillary rise in a wall) caused by oxidation of dissolved iron (II) and its subsequent precipitation, from an unconfined aquifer in karst topography. Perth, Western Australia.
Texas blind salamander found in Edwards Aquifer
Water cycle
Groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Central United States
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Center-pivot irrigated fields in Kansas covering hundreds of square miles watered by the Ogallala Aquifer
Water fountain
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
A young girl drinking bottled water
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in rock and soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

- Groundwater

An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).

- Aquifer

Groundwater from aquifers can be extracted using a water well.

- Aquifer

A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water.

- Groundwater

Small portions of water occur as groundwater (1.7%), in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland (1.7%), and in the air as vapor, clouds (consisting of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001%).

- Water

It also exists as groundwater in aquifers.

- Water
An illustration showing groundwater in aquifers (in blue) (1, 5 and 6) below the water table (4), and three different wells (7, 8 and 9) dug to reach it.

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Boy drinks from a tap at a NEWAH WASH water project in Puware Shikhar, Udayapur District, Nepal.

Hydrogeology

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Boy drinks from a tap at a NEWAH WASH water project in Puware Shikhar, Udayapur District, Nepal.
Checking wells
Boy under a waterfall in Phu Sang National Park, Thailand.
Demänovská Cave of Liberty, "Emerald Lake"
Karst spring (Cuneo, Piemonte, Italy)
Painting by Ivan Aivazovsky (1841)
A piezometer is a device used to measure the hydraulic head of groundwater.
A water drop.
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[Left] High porosity, well sorted [Right] Low porosity, poorly sorted
Illustration of seasonal fluctuations in the water table.
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Henry Darcy, whose work set the foundation of quantitative hydrogeology
Geometry of a partially penetrating well drainage system in an anisotropic layered aquifer
Relative groundwater travel times.
A water well in Kerala, India.

Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).

Hydrogeology is an interdisciplinary subject; it can be difficult to account fully for the chemical, physical, biological and even legal interactions between soil, water, nature and society.

A dug well in a village in Faryab Province, Afghanistan

Well

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A dug well in a village in Faryab Province, Afghanistan
The difference between a well and a cistern is in the source of the water: a cistern collects rainwater where a well draws from groundwater.
Camel drawing water from a well, Djerba island, Tunisia, 1960
A Chinese ceramic model of a well with a water pulley system, excavated from a tomb of the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) period
Water well near Simaisma, eastern Qatar
Leather bucket used for the water well
Well, Historical Village, Bhaini Sahib, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
View into a hand-dug well cased with concrete rings. Ouelessebougou, Mali.
A dug well in a village in Kerala, India
Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia
Water well drilling in Ein Hemed, near Jerusalem circa 1964
Water well types
An old-fashioned water well in the countryside of Utajärvi, Finland
Waterborne diseases can be spread via a well which is contaminated with fecal pathogens from pit latrines.
Man cleaning a well in Yaoundé, Cameroon
Hand pump to pump water from a well in a village near Chennai in India, where the well water might be polluted by nearby pit latrines
Water use, Tacuinum Sanitatis, Biblioteca Casanatense (14th century)
An automated water well system powered by a jet-pump
An automated water well system powered by a submersible pump
A water well system with a cistern
A water well system with a pressurized cistern
A section of a stainless steel screen well
Diagram of a water well partially filled to level z with the top of the aquifer at zT

A well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, or drilling to access liquid resources, usually water.

The oldest and most common kind of well is a water well, to access groundwater in underground aquifers.

Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1400 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1.4 trillion tonnes (235000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 8 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest man-made object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.

Fresh water

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Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1400 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1.4 trillion tonnes (235000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 8 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest man-made object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.
A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth. Only 3% of the Earth's water is fresh water. Most of it is in icecaps and glaciers (69%) and groundwater (30%), while all lakes, rivers and swamps combined only account for a small fraction (0.3%) of the Earth's total freshwater reserves.

Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids.

Fresh water may encompass frozen and meltwater in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, snowfields and icebergs, natural precipitations such as rainfall, snowfall, hail/sleet and graupel, and surface runoffs that form inland bodies of water such as wetlands, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, as well as groundwater contained in aquifers, subterranean rivers and lakes.