Aquitaine

AquitanianAquitainianAquitaniaAquitainiansAquitaniansGuienneGuyenneAkytaniaAquitaine regionAquitaine Region, France
Aquitaine (,, ; Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France and a former administrative region of the country.wikipedia
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Nouvelle-Aquitaine

Nouvelle AquitaineNew AquitaineAquitaine
Since 1 January 2016 it has been part of the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine.
The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine, Limousin and Poitou-Charentes.

Regions of France

regionrégionadministrative region
Aquitaine (,, ; Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France and a former administrative region of the country.
The law gave interim names for most of the new regions by combining the names of the former regions, e.g. the region composed of Aquitaine, Poitou-Charentes and Limousin was temporarily called Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
Aquitaine (,, ; Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France and a former administrative region of the country.
Tensions between the kingdom of France and the Plantagenet empire would last a hundred years, until Philip Augustus of France conquered between 1202 and 1214 most of the continental possessions of the empire, leaving England and Aquitaine to the Plantagenets.

Aquitani

AquitaniansAquitanian tribesAquitaine
There are traces of human settlement by prehistoric peoples, especially in the Périgord, but the earliest attested inhabitants in the south-west were the Aquitani, who were not proper Celtic people, but more akin to the Iberians (see Gallia Aquitania).
The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.

Périgord

PerigordPérigord NoirBlack Périgord
There are traces of human settlement by prehistoric peoples, especially in the Périgord, but the earliest attested inhabitants in the south-west were the Aquitani, who were not proper Celtic people, but more akin to the Iberians (see Gallia Aquitania).
The Périgord (,, ; Peiregòrd / Perigòrd ) is a natural region and former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région.

Gallia Aquitania

AquitaniaAquitaineAquitania Secunda
There are traces of human settlement by prehistoric peoples, especially in the Périgord, but the earliest attested inhabitants in the south-west were the Aquitani, who were not proper Celtic people, but more akin to the Iberians (see Gallia Aquitania).
Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.

Novempopulania

NovempopulanaAquitaineAquitania
Novempopulania and Gascony) within the same region. The Roman Aquitania Tertia remained in place as Novempopulania, where a duke was appointed to hold a grip over the Basques (Vascones/Wascones, rendered Gascons in English).
The area of Novempopulania was historically the first one to receive the name of Aquitania, as it was here where the original Aquitani dwelt primarily.

Battle of Toulouse (721)

Battle of ToulouseToulouseSiege of Toulouse
In 721, the Aquitanian duke fended Umayyad troops (Sarracens) off at Toulouse, but in 732 (or 733, according to Roger Collins), an Umayyad expedition commanded by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi defeated Odo next to Bordeaux, and went on to loot its way up to Poitiers.
The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of an Aquitanian Christian army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad Muslim army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani.

Odo the Great

Odo of AquitaineEudesEudes of Aquitaine
A united Basque-Aquitanian realm reached its heyday under Odo the Great's rule.
His territory included Vasconia in the south-west of Gaul and the Duchy of Aquitaine (at that point located north-east of the river Garonne), a realm extending from the Loire to the Pyrenees, with the capital in Toulouse.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a kingdom and a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably.
after 864), the emperor's grandson, rebelled in a contest for Aquitaine, while Louis the German tried to annex all of East Francia.

Battle of Tours

Battle of PoitiersPoitiersTours
In 721, the Aquitanian duke fended Umayyad troops (Sarracens) off at Toulouse, but in 732 (or 733, according to Roger Collins), an Umayyad expedition commanded by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi defeated Odo next to Bordeaux, and went on to loot its way up to Poitiers.
It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in Aquitaine in west-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 km northeast of Poitiers.

Loire

Loire RiverRiver LoireLoire estuary
Under Augustus' Roman rule, since 27 BC the province of Aquitania was further stretched to the north to the River Loire, thus including proper Gaul tribes along with old Aquitani south of the Garonne (cf. In 507, they were expelled south to Hispania after their defeat in the Battle of Vouillé by the Franks, who became the new rulers in the area to the south of the Loire.
The English defeated the French in 1356 and Aquitaine came under English control in 1360.

Toulouse

Toulouse, FranceTolosaToulousain
Visigoths established their capital in Toulouse, but their tenure on Aquitaine was feeble.
In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse.

Celts

CelticCeltCeltic people
There are traces of human settlement by prehistoric peoples, especially in the Périgord, but the earliest attested inhabitants in the south-west were the Aquitani, who were not proper Celtic people, but more akin to the Iberians (see Gallia Aquitania).
According to the Recueil des Inscriptions Gauloises, more than 760 Gaulish inscriptions have been found throughout present-day France – with the notable exception of Aquitaine – and in Italy, which testifies the importance of Celtic heritage in the peninsula.

Battle of Vouillé

Battle of VouilleBattle of Campus Vogladensisconquered
In 507, they were expelled south to Hispania after their defeat in the Battle of Vouillé by the Franks, who became the new rulers in the area to the south of the Loire.
Due to Clovis' earlier victories over the Alemann i east of the Rhine, as well as the Burgundians in the Rhone Valley, the Franks growing power began to pose a threat to the Alaric II's territory in Aquitaine and Hispania.

Vascones

VasconBasqueVascons
The Roman Aquitania Tertia remained in place as Novempopulania, where a duke was appointed to hold a grip over the Basques (Vascones/Wascones, rendered Gascons in English).
540 - after 621) mentions the Vascones in a story about the foundation of the city of Victoriacum by the Visigoth king Liuvigild and Gregory of Tours (538-594) mentions the incursions of Wascones in Aquitaine during the year 587.

Gascony

GasconGasconsGascogne
Novempopulania and Gascony) within the same region. In 781, Charlemagne decided to proclaim his son Louis King of Aquitaine within the Carolingian Empire, ruling over a realm comprising the Duchy of Aquitaine and the Duchy of Vasconia He suppressed various Basque (Gascon) uprisings, even venturing into the lands of Pamplona past the Pyrenees after ravaging Gascony, with a view to imposing his authority also in the Vasconia to south of Pyrenees.
His 1152 marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine allowed the future Henry II to gain control of his new wife's possessions of Aquitaine and Gascony.

Treaty of Verdun

Partition of VerdunTreaties of VerdunVerdun
After the 843 Treaty of Verdun, the defeat of Pepin II and the death of Charles the Bald, the Kingdom of Aquitaine (subsumed in West Francia) ceased to have any relevance and the title of King of Aquitaine took on a nominal value.
He also supported his nephew, Pepin II's claim to Aquitaine, a large province in the west of the Frankish realm.

Charles the Bald

Charles IICharlesCharles II the Bald
After the 843 Treaty of Verdun, the defeat of Pepin II and the death of Charles the Bald, the Kingdom of Aquitaine (subsumed in West Francia) ceased to have any relevance and the title of King of Aquitaine took on a nominal value. Before Pepin's death, emperor Louis had appointed a new king in 832, his son Charles the Bald, while the Aquitanian lords elected Pepin II as king.
The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German, King of Bavaria, made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul.

Carolingian Empire

CarolingianCarolingian eraFrankish Empire
In 781, Charlemagne decided to proclaim his son Louis King of Aquitaine within the Carolingian Empire, ruling over a realm comprising the Duchy of Aquitaine and the Duchy of Vasconia He suppressed various Basque (Gascon) uprisings, even venturing into the lands of Pamplona past the Pyrenees after ravaging Gascony, with a view to imposing his authority also in the Vasconia to south of Pyrenees.
These included King Charles the Younger, son of Charlemagne, who received Neustria; King Louis the Pious, who received Aquitaine; and King Pepin, who received Italy.

Angevin Empire

AngevinPlantagenet EmpireAngevins
When Eleanor's new husband became King Henry II of England in 1154, the area became an English possession, and a cornerstone of the Angevin Empire.
John lost control of most of his continental possessions, apart from Gascony in southern Aquitaine.

West Francia

West Frankish KingdomWest FrankishWestern Francia
After the 843 Treaty of Verdun, the defeat of Pepin II and the death of Charles the Bald, the Kingdom of Aquitaine (subsumed in West Francia) ceased to have any relevance and the title of King of Aquitaine took on a nominal value.
Charles the Bald was at war with Pippin II from the start of his reign in 840, and the Treaty of Verdun ignored the claimant and assigned Aquitaine to Charles.

Battle of Roncevaux Pass

Battle of RoncesvallesBattle of RoncevauxRoncesvalles
According to his biography, he achieved everything he wanted and after staying overnight in Pamplona, on his way back his army was attacked [[Battle of Roncevaux Pass (778)#The 812 expedition and the Second Battle of Roncevaux|in Roncevaux in 812]], but narrowly escaped an engagement at the Pyrenean passes.
The Vascones have a history of resisting Carolingian rule since the incursion of Frankish king Pepin the Short, which saw the defeat of Waiofar, the last independent Duke of Aquitaine.

Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd Allah al-Ghafiqi

Abdul Rahman Al GhafiqiAbd al-Rahman al-GhafiqiAbd al-Rahman
In 721, the Aquitanian duke fended Umayyad troops (Sarracens) off at Toulouse, but in 732 (or 733, according to Roger Collins), an Umayyad expedition commanded by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi defeated Odo next to Bordeaux, and went on to loot its way up to Poitiers.
Emir Abdul Rahman made his way through Gascony and Aquitaine, according to one unidentified Arab, "That army went through all places like a desolating storm," sacking and capturing the city of Bordeaux, after defeating Duke Odo of Aquitaine in battle outside the city, and then again defeating a second army of Duke Odo at the Battle of the River Garonne —where the western chroniclers state, "God alone knows the number of the slain."

Occitan language

OccitanProvençallangue d'oc
Many residents also have some knowledge of Basque, of a variety of Occitan (Gascon, Limousin, or Languedocien), or of the Poitevin-Saintongeais dialect of French.