Arabian Peninsula

Satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula
The geographical and political boundaries of the Arabian Peninsula
The constituent countries of Arabia
The Haraz Mountains in western Yemen include Arabia's highest mountain, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb or Jabal Hadhur near Sanaa
Ancient coins from Failaka Island, Kuwait
Sabaean inscription addressed to the god Almaqah, mentioning five Ancient Yemeni gods, two reigning sovereigns and two governors, 7th century BC
Age of the Caliphs
Arab tribes before the spread of Islam
Portuguese colonies in Arabia.
Ottoman territories on the Arabian Peninsula acquired between 1517 and 1590 (See: list of territories)
Arabian peninsula during 1900s.
The peninsula in right before World War I.
Jebel Hafeet on the border of Oman and the UAE, near the city of Al Ain. It can be considered an outlier of Al Hajar Mountains.<ref name="Gardner 01-2004"/>
The northeastern Hajar Mountains, shared by Oman and the UAE, as seen from the desert of Sharjah
The Dhofar mountainous region in southeastern Oman, where the city of Salalah is located, is a tourist destination known for its annual khareef season
The Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen, contiguous with the Omani Dhofar range, as seen from the city of Al-Mukalla
Terraced fields in the Harazi subrange of the Sarawat Mountains in western Yemen
Jabal Sawdah of the 'Asir range in southwestern Saudi Arabia, in Asir Region near the border with Yemen
The Faifa mountains in the Jazan Region, southwestern Saudi Arabia.
The Midian Mountains of Tabuk Province, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, near the border with Jordan
The Aja subrange of the Shammar Mountains in the region of Ha'il, northern Saudi Arabia
The Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwayr mountainous region in the Najd, southwest of the Saudi capital city of Riyadh
The old city of Sanaa, Yemen. Peninsular Arabs trace their lineage to Qahtan, who was reportedly based in Yemen.
A map of the peninsula made in 1720 by the German publisher Christoph Weigel
Ain Zubaydah was built to water the pilgrims in Mecca by order of Zubaidah bint Ja'far
Omar Mosque in Dumat al-Jandal, Saudi Arabia.
The facade of a tomb with its details and architectural elements.
Qasr al Farid, tomb in Archeological site Mada'in Saleh, Al-`Ula, Saudi Arabia
Diriyah the capital of the first Saudi state
Dam of Ma'rib
Himyarite King Dhamar'ali Yahbur II
Arad Fort in Bahrain
Nizwa Fort in Oman
The ruins of Umayyad city in the historic Jumeirah district of Dubai.
Bull's head, made of copper in the early period of Dilmun (ca. 2000 BC), Bahrain.
The head and body of a Saluki is made of stone from the Al-Magar civilization, in the Neolithic period, (about 8000 BC).

Peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate.

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Arabian Plate

Minor tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.

Eurasian, Anatolian, and Arabian (purple coloring) plates

The Arabian Plate consists mostly of the Arabian Peninsula; it extends westward to the Sinai Peninsula and the Red Sea and northward to the Levant.


Ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).
Traditional Qahtanite genealogy
Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.
Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum
Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of historian Ibn Khaldun.
Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.
The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans.
Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE
The Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors
The imperial province of Arabia Petraea in 117–138 CE
Age of the Caliphs
Tombstone of Muhammad (Left), Abu Bakr and Umar (right), Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo in 969
Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt
Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt
A map of the Arab world
The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kinda and Hejaz
Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam
Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920
Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918
Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu Hilal
Population density of the Arab world in 2008.
An overview of the different Arabic dialects
Arabic-speaking peoples in the Middle East and North Africa
Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895
Amel Bent, a French-born Maghrebi pop singer
The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United States of America
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate
Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.
Baggara belt
Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator
The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia
A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan
An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript
Arabic calligraphy
Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900
A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-Jahiz.
Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.
Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran
A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan
Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.
Arabic miniature depicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri
The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987
Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.
Al-Lat was the god of Arabs before Islam; It was found in Ta'if
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.
Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".
Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
Henna tattoo in Morocco

The first mention of Arabs appeared in the mid-9th century BCE, as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the northern Arabian Peninsula.

Arabian Sea

Arabian Sea
17th century map depicting the locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
Arabian Sea as seen from space.
The aerial view of the Arabian Sea above Bombay/Mumbai, India
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
The Kochi Port located on the south-west coast of India is the nearest Indian port to the international shipping routes, as well as one of the largest and busiest ports serving the Arabian Sea. Seen here is the International Container Transshipment Terminal, the only such facility in India.
Landsat view of Socotra, an island of Yemen.
Phytoplankton bloom over the Arabian Sea in winter (NASA)
A horizontal Malabar Coast miniature, a reprint by Petrus Bertius, 1630
Persian Sea.
thumb|Asia. Sinus Persicus and the Mare Persicum
Erythraean Sea 1838.
1658 Jansson Map of the Indian Ocean (Erythraean Sea)
The western part of the Indian Ocean,1693.
The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693 from his system of global gores the Makran coast
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island, Iran.
Critically endangered
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow waters.
thumb|Makran coast
thumb|Makran sea .Makoran coast in Iran
thumb|Makran coast

The Arabian Sea (Arabic: اَلْبَحرْ ٱلْعَرَبِيُّ romanized: Al-Bahr al-ˁArabī) is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan, Iran and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea and the Maldives, on the southwest by Somalia, and on the east by India.

South Arabia

South Arabian forehead ornament, probably late 1800s, made of gold, pearls, turquoise, gemstones, exhibited in the Dallas Museum of Art (Dallas, Texas, US)
Flag of Federation of South Arabia, Protectorate of British Empire.

South Arabia (جنوب الجزيرة العربية) is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.


Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's conquest of Arabia
Najd superimposed over the modern political divisions of Saudi Arabia
Lake at the 120 km long Wadi Hanifa valley that cuts through Riyadh
The area of 'Uqdah on the outskirts of Ha'il
The An Nafud desert in the outskirts of Riyadh with the Jabal Tuwaiq in the background
Skyline of Riyadh in the late 2010s
Najd is home to numerous date farms and large agricultural areas.

Najd (نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia, accounting for about a third of the country's modern population and, since the Emirate of Diriyah, acting as the base for all unification campaigns by the House of Saud to bring Arabia under a single polity and under the Salafi jurisprudence.


Landform that extends from a mainland and is surrounded by water on most, but not all of its borders.

This conical hill in Salar de Arizaro, Salta, Argentina called Cono de Arita constitutes a landform.

The largest peninsula in the world is the Arabian Peninsula.


Above: Jeddah in the Saudi part of the Tihamah
Below: A map of the Arabian Peninsula with the western Tihami region in green
Above: Jeddah in the Saudi part of the Tihamah
Below: A map of the Arabian Peninsula with the western Tihami region in green
The Tihami coastal plain in the south of Yemen, 1931
Date palm trees on the Yemeni coast of the Red Sea

Tihamah or Tihama (تِهَامَةُ Tihāmah) refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb.


Bab-el-Mandeb area with description.
Bathymetric map of the Red Sea with the Bab-el-Mandeb at the bottom right
Flows of petroleum products and liquefied natural gas through the strait, 2014–2018

The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب,, ባብ ኣል ማንዳብ) is a strait between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.


Region in the west of Saudi Arabia.

Above: Islam's holiest site, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah (middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims.

Below: Map of the Hejaz showing the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yanbu and Tabuk. The Saudi Arabian region is outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom is in green.
Above: Islam's holiest site, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque), which surrounds the Ka'bah (middle), in Mecca, land of Muhammad's birth and ancestry and an annual point of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims.

Below: Map of the Hejaz showing the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yanbu and Tabuk. The Saudi Arabian region is outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom is in green.
The city of Al-'Ula in 2012. The city's archaeological district is in the foreground, with the Hijaz Mountains in the background.
The rock-carved Qaṣr Al-Farīd at Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) or Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ ("Cities of Saleh")
Muhammad's Mosque in Medina, his place-of-residence after the Hijrah (Migration) from Mecca, 2010
Harrat Khaybar, as seen from the International Space Station
Workers laying tracks for the Hejaz Railway near Tabuk, 1906
Flag of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)
Flag of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)
Flag of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
Flag of the Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)
Flag of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171–1254)
Flag of the Mamluk Sultanate (1254–1517)
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1517–1916)
Sheikdom of Upper Asir (1916-1920)
Provisional flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz from 1916 to 1917
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz (1917–1920)
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and the Sharifian Caliphate (1920 to 1926)
Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd (1926 to 1932)
Flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1973–present)
thumb|Mountains near Ta'if, 2012
The camp of Mina on the outskirts of Mecca, where Muslim pilgrims gather for the Ḥajj (Greater Pilgrimage). Masjid Al-Khayf is visible to the right.
Pilgrims gathering at the plain of Mount Arafat
Mount Uhud in the area of Madinah
The old city of Jeddah
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) campus at night
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Al-Bahah City, located {{convert|2,155|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province

The Hejaz is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula.


Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Safaitic inscription
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the Arabian Peninsula bounded by eastern Egypt in the west, Mesopotamia in the east, and the Anti-Lebanon mountains and northern Syria in the north, as perceived by ancient Greek geographers.