Swahili in Arabic script—memorial plate at the Askari Monument, Dar es Salaam (1927)
Safaitic inscription
Although originally written with the Arabic script, Swahili is now written in a Latin alphabet introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators. The text shown here is the Catholic version of the Lord's Prayer.
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Swahili in Arabic script on the clothes of a girl in German East Africa (ca. early 1900s)
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
Loxodonta africana elephants frolic in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, 2012.
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

Yet sixteen to twenty percent of the Swahili vocabulary are Arabic loanwords, including the name of the language (سَوَاحِلي sawāḥilī, a plural adjectival form of an Arabic word meaning 'of the coast').

- Swahili language

Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Maldivian, Pashto, Punjabi, Albanian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Sicilian, Spanish, Greek, Bulgarian, Tagalog, Sindhi, Odia Hebrew and Hausa and some languages in parts of Africa (e.g. Swahili, Somali).

- Arabic

4 related topics

Alpha

Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician and Portuguese.

Portuguese language

Western Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.

Western Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.

Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician and Portuguese.
Sign in Japanese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi, Japan, which has a large lusophone community due to return immigration of Japanese Brazilians.
Countries and regions where Portuguese has official status.
Multilingual signage in Chinese, Portuguese and English at the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge port building in Macau. Portuguese is a co-official language in Macau.
Ethnically diverse East Timor has Portuguese as one of its official languages.
Statue of the Portuguese Poet Luís de Camões at the entrence of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Portugal's Portuguese Dialects.
Percentage of worldwide Portuguese speakers per country.
In Brasília, the Senate committee room during a meeting of the Education, Culture and Sport Committee in 2014. The committee holds a public hearing to discuss the Orthographic Agreement for the Portuguese Language, signed in 1990 and implemented in January 2016. The new rules must apply for the eight countries that have Portuguese as an official language, including Brazil, Portugal, etc.
Linguistic map of Pre-Roman Iberia.
Library of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
A sign at Goa Central Library, in Panaji, India, listing three Portuguese-language newspapers
Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Portuguese (Galician-Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbors between the year 1000 and 2000.
Map showing mostly contemporary West Iberian and Occitano-Romance languages, as well many of their mainland European dialects (areas colored green, gold or pink/purple represent languages deemed endangered by UNESCO, so this may be outdated in less than a few decades). It shows European Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian, Mirandese and the Fala as not only closely related but as dialect continuum, though it excludes dialects spoken in insular Portugal (Azores and Madeira–Canaries is not shown either).
An Old Portuguese Memento mori memorial sign in Malacca City.
Participating countries of the Lusophony Games.
Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon, with its in central schwa position.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Recife.
The main post office building of Macau
The Bissau-Guinean Presidential Palace, with its Portuguese colonial architecture, is a building that has a library, a small theater and was formerly the palace of the colonial governor of Portuguese-Guinea, seen from the PAIGC-building (formerly the seat of the local commercial association Associação Comercial, Industrial e Agrícola de Bissau), located at the Praça dos Heróis Nacionais square (formerly Praça do Império square), in downtown Bissau.
The Natural History Museum of Mozambique (Manueline) in Maputo.
The Fundação Oriente of Fontainhas, India. The Fundação Oriente, along with Instituto Camões, Instituto Menezes Bragança among others, are institutions dedicated to the worldwide promotion of the Portuguese language and culture.
The International Portuguese Language Institute headquarters, in Praia.

After the Moorish invasion beginning in 711, Arabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of Romance commonly known as Mozarabic, which lasted three centuries longer in Spain.

Portuguese has provided loanwords to many languages, such as Indonesian, Manado Malay, Malayalam, Sri Lankan Tamil and Sinhala, Malay, Bengali, English, Hindi, Swahili, Afrikaans, Konkani, Marathi, Punjabi, Tetum, Xitsonga, Japanese, Lanc-Patuá, Esan, Bandari (spoken in Iran) and Sranan Tongo (spoken in Suriname).

Koine Greek

Lingua franca

Language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Koine Greek
The Hispanophone and influential areas
Status of Arabic language map
Areas where Russian is the majority language (medium blue) or a minority language (light blue)
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi or Kauravi) is the native language, and the much wider area of the Indo-Aryan language group (gray), where it is lengua franca
Countries where Malay is spoken
Geographic extent of Swahili. Dark green: native range. Medium green: official use. Light green: bilingual use but not official.
Areas with significant numbers of people whose first language is Persian (including dialects)
Rough territorial extent of Hand Talk (in purple) within the US and Canada

Likewise, Arabic, French, Mandarin Chinese, and Russian serve similar purposes as industrial and educational lingua francas across regional and national boundaries.

Swahili developed as a lingua franca between several Bantu-speaking tribal groups on the east coast of Africa with heavy influence from Arabic.

Oman

Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Late Iron Age sites in Oman.
The Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn in Ad Dhahirah were built in the 3rd Millennium BCE, are UNESCO World Heritage.
Ruins of Khor Rori, built between 100 BCE & 100 CE.
Bahla Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage site, was built between 12th and 15th c. by the Nabhani dynasty.
The Portuguese Empire ruled Oman for 143 years (1507–1650).
Portuguese presence in the 16th and 18th century in the Persian Gulf.
Following the expulsion of the Portuguese Empire, Oman became one of the powers in the western Indian Ocean from 1698 onwards.
The Sultan's Palace in Zanzibar, which was once Oman's capital and residence of its sultans
The split between the interior region (orange) and the coastal region (red) of Oman and Muscat.
Sultan Said bin Taimur ruled from 1932 to 1970.
Nizwa Fort attacked by British Royal Air Force strike aircraft during Jebel Akhdar War.
Sultan Qaboos bin Said ruled from 1970 until his death in 2020.
Wadi Shab
An oasis in Oman
The coast of Sur, Oman
Nakhal palm tree farms in Oman's Batina Region
The Arabian humpback whales off Dhofar
Osprey in Yiti Beach, Oman
The Sultan's Al Alam Palace in Old Muscat
Sultan Haitham bin Tariq with US secretary of state Mike Pompeo, February 2020.
Royal Navy of Oman Khareef-class corvette, Al-Shamikh
Mohammed Alfazari, an exiled Omani writer and journalist now living in the UK, is an author whose books are banned in Oman. He is also the founder and EIC of Muwatin.
Governorates of Oman
A proportional representation of Oman exports, 2019
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Oman
Muscat Securities Market
Petrochemical tanks in Sohar
Al-Bustan Palace Hotel
Wahiba Sands
Arabic and English road sign in Oman
The traditional Dhow, an enduring symbol of Oman
A khanjar, the traditional dagger of Oman (c. 1924)
Cinema in Sur
Ancient irrigation system and water channels. Aflaj Gallery, The National Museum of Oman.
Traditional Omani food
Oman hosted and won the 19th Arabian Gulf Cup.
2010 FIFA World Cup Qualifiers Round 3 match between Oman and Japan at the Royal Oman Police Stadium on 7 June 2008 in Muscat, Oman
A mosque in Muscat, Oman
Mutrah Fort, Muscat, Oman
Al Ameen Mosque, Muscat, Oman
Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Muscat, Oman
Sultan's Ship, Mutrah, Muscat, Oman
Al Amarat Hills, Muscat, Oman
Al Azaiba Beach, Muscat, Oman
Library of Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Muscat, Oman

Arabic is the official language of Oman.

Additionally, Swahili is widely spoken in the country due to the historical relations between Oman and Zanzibar.

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).

East Africa

Eastern subregion of the African continent.

Eastern subregion of the African continent.

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).
The Bab-el-Mandeb crossing in the Red Sea: now some 12 miles (20 km) wide, narrower in prehistory.
Early Iron Age findings in East and Southern Africa
Map of British East Africa in 1911

During the following fifteen centuries, the Bantu slowly intensified farming and grazing over all suitable regions of East Africa, in the process making contact with Austronesian- and Arabic-speaking settlers on southern coastal areas.

With its original speech community centered on the coastal parts of Tanzania (particularly Zanzibar) and Kenya—a seaboard referred to as the Swahili Coast—the Bantu Swahili language contains many Arabic loan-words as a consequence of these interactions.