A report on Middle AgesArabs and Saracen

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).
Late 15th-century German woodcut depicting Saracens
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Traditional Qahtanite genealogy
12th-century Reliquary of Saint Stanislaus in the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków is an example of Saracen art from Sicily or Palestine.
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.
Saracens landing on a coast, 915
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum
Maugis fighting the Saracen Noiron in Aigremont, in Renaud de Montauban. David Aubert, Bruges, 1462-1470
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of historian Ibn Khaldun.
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans.
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
The Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
The imperial province of Arabia Petraea in 117–138 CE
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
Age of the Caliphs
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Tombstone of Muhammad (Left), Abu Bakr and Umar (right), Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo in 969
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
A map of the Arab world
Map of Europe in 1360
The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kinda and Hejaz
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu Hilal
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Population density of the Arab world in 2008.
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
An overview of the different Arabic dialects
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
Arabic-speaking peoples in the Middle East and North Africa
Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895
Amel Bent, a French-born Maghrebi pop singer
The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United States of America
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate
Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.
Baggara belt
Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator
The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia
A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan
An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript
Arabic calligraphy
Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900
A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-Jahiz.
Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.
Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran
A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan
Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.
Arabic miniature depicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri
The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987
Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.
Al-Lat was the god of Arabs before Islam; It was found in Ta'if
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.
Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".
Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
Henna tattoo in Morocco
The Qur'an is one of the most influential examples of Arabic literature

Saracen was a term used by European Christians during the Middle Ages to refer to Muslims—usually Arabs, Turks, and Iranians.

- Saracen

It covered much of Western Europe but later succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, and Saracens from the south.

- Middle Ages

The Christians of Italy and the Crusaders preferred the term Saracens for all the Arabs, Muslims.

- Arabs

Judaism was an active proselytising faith, and at least one Arab political leader converted to it.

- Middle Ages

There is a small remnant of pre-Islamic poetry, but Arabic literature predominantly emerges in the Middle Ages, during the Golden Age of Islam.

- Arabs
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

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