Aramaic

Aramaic languageMiddle AramaicChaldeeAram.Aramaic nameSyriacAssyrianAssyrian/SyriacChaldeanEastern Middle Aramaic
Aramaic (Arāmāyā; Old Aramaic:𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Imperial Aramaic: 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡀; square script אַרָמָיָא, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.wikipedia
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Aramaic alphabet

AramaicAramaic scriptImperial Aramaic
Aramaic (Arāmāyā; Old Aramaic:𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Imperial Aramaic: 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡀; square script אַרָמָיָא, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. (That use of written Aramaic subsequently led to the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet and—as logograms—some Aramaic vocabulary in the Pahlavi scripts, which were used by several Middle Iranian languages, including Parthian, Middle Persian, Sogdian, and Khwarazmian).
It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew.

Canaanite languages

CanaaniteCanaanite languageCanaanite peoples
More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician.
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.

Semitic languages

SemiticSemitic languageArabian
Aramaic (Arāmāyā; Old Aramaic:𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Imperial Aramaic: 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡀; square script אַרָמָיָא, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The most widely spoken Semitic languages today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic (300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew (~5 million native/L1 speakers), Tigre (~1.05 million), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (483,000 speakers).

Phoenician language

PhoenicianPhoenician-PunicPhenician-Punic
More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region, then called "Pūt" (in Phoenician and Egyptian), "Canaan" (in Biblical Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic), "Phoenicia" (in Greek and Latin).

Language of Jesus

AramaicAramaic of JesusEphphatha
Aramaic was the language of Jesus, who spoke the Galilean dialect during his public ministry, as well as the language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and also one of the languages of the Talmud.
It is generally agreed by historians that Jesus and his disciples primarily spoke Aramaic, the common language of Judea in the first century AD, most likely a Galilean dialect distinguishable from that of Jerusalem.

Mesopotamia

MesopotamianMesopotamiansAncient Iraq
By around 1000 BC, the Arameans had a string of kingdoms in what is now part of Syria and Mesopotamia.
The Aramaic term biritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geographical concept.

Syriac language

SyriacClassical SyriacSyriac-Aramaic
Significantly more widespread is Syriac, the liturgical language of Syriac Christianity, in particular the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church, Assyrian Evangelical Church, Ancient Church of the East, Syriac Catholic Church, the Maronite Church, and the Saint Thomas Christian denominations of India.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ, ܠܸܫܵ݁ܢܵܐ ܣܘܼܪܝܵܝܵܐ or ܠܶܫܳ݁ܢܳܐ ܣܽܘܪܝܳܝܳܐ '), also known as Syrian/Syriac Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic or Classical Syriac''', is a dialect of Middle Aramaic of the Northwest Semitic languages of the Afroasiatic family that is written in the Syriac alphabet, a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet.

Northwest Semitic languages

Northwest SemiticNorthwest Semitic languageNorthwest Semitic group
More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician.
The term was coined by Carl Brockelmann in 1908, who separated Fritz Hommel's 1883 classification of "West Semitic languages" into Northwest (Canaanite and Aramaic) and Southwest (Arabic and Abyssinian).

Pahlavi scripts

PahlaviPahlavi scriptBook Pahlavi
(That use of written Aramaic subsequently led to the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet and—as logograms—some Aramaic vocabulary in the Pahlavi scripts, which were used by several Middle Iranian languages, including Parthian, Middle Persian, Sogdian, and Khwarazmian).
Among the many practices so adopted was the use of the Aramaic language ("Imperial Aramaic") that together with Aramaic script served as the language of the chancellery.

Eastern Arabia

BahraynBahrainal-Bahrayn
At its height, variants of Aramaic were spoken all over in what is today Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Eastern Arabia, Northern Arabia, and to a lesser extent parts of southeast and south central Turkey, and parts of northwest Iran.
Before the 7th century CE, the population of Eastern Arabia consisted of partially Christianized Arabs, Arab Zoroastrians, Jews and Aramaic-speaking agriculturalists.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

AssyrianAssyrian languageSuret
Neo-Aramaic languages are still spoken today as a first language by many communities of Syriac Christians, Jews (in particular, the Kurdish Jews), and Mandaeans of Western Asia, most numerously by Chaldeans, Syriacs and Assyrians with numbers of fluent speakers ranging approximately from 1 million to 2 million, with the main languages among Assyrians being Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (235,000 speakers), Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (1 million speakers) and Turoyo (112,000 to 450,000 speakers), together with a number of smaller closely related languages with no more than 5,000 to 10,000 speakers between them.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic or simply Assyrian (ܣܘܪܝܬ or ܣܘܪܬ Sūreṯ), also known as Syriac, Eastern Syriac and Neo-Syriac, is an Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family that is spoken by the Assyrian people.

Neo-Aramaic languages

Neo-AramaicAramaicmodern Aramaic
Neo-Aramaic languages are still spoken today as a first language by many communities of Syriac Christians, Jews (in particular, the Kurdish Jews), and Mandaeans of Western Asia, most numerously by Chaldeans, Syriacs and Assyrians with numbers of fluent speakers ranging approximately from 1 million to 2 million, with the main languages among Assyrians being Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (235,000 speakers), Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (1 million speakers) and Turoyo (112,000 to 450,000 speakers), together with a number of smaller closely related languages with no more than 5,000 to 10,000 speakers between them.
The Neo-Aramaic or Modern Aramaic languages are varieties of Aramaic, that are spoken vernaculars from the medieval to modern era that evolved out of Imperial Aramaic via Middle Aramaic dialects, around AD 1200 (conventional date).

Western Neo-Aramaic

Western AramaicAramaicWestern Neo-Aramaic language
The more widely spoken Eastern Aramaic and Mandaic forms are today largely restricted to Iraqi Kurdistan, northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey, whilst the severely endangered Western Neo-Aramaic is spoken by small communities in northwestern Syria.
Western Neo-Aramaic is probably the last surviving remnant of a Western Middle Aramaic dialect which was spoken throughout the Orontes River Valley area and into the Anti-Lebanon Mountains in the 6th century.

Manichaeism

ManichaeanManichaeansManichean
Syriac was also the liturgical language of several now-extinct gnostic faiths, such as Manichaeism.
Manichaeism was quickly successful and spread far through the Aramaic-speaking regions.

Neo-Babylonian Empire

Neo-BabylonianBabylonianBabylon
The scribes of the Neo-Assyrian bureaucracy had also used Aramaic, and this practice—together with other administrative practices—was subsequently inherited by the succeeding Neo-Babylonians (605–539 BC), and the Achaemenids (539–323 BC).
Even though Aramaic had become the everyday tongue, Akkadian was retained as the language of administration and culture.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
By around 1000 BC, the Arameans had a string of kingdoms in what is now part of Syria and Mesopotamia. At its height, variants of Aramaic were spoken all over in what is today Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Eastern Arabia, Northern Arabia, and to a lesser extent parts of southeast and south central Turkey, and parts of northwest Iran.
Palmyra, a rich and sometimes powerful native Aramaic-speaking kingdom arose in northern Syria in the 2nd century; the Palmyrene established a trade network that made the city one of the richest in the Roman empire.

Syriac Orthodox Church

Syriac OrthodoxSyriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the EastJacobite
Significantly more widespread is Syriac, the liturgical language of Syriac Christianity, in particular the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church, Assyrian Evangelical Church, Ancient Church of the East, Syriac Catholic Church, the Maronite Church, and the Saint Thomas Christian denominations of India.
The English term “Syrian” (from Aramaic: “Aššūrāyu”; “Assyria”) was used to describe the community of Assyrian people in ancient Syria.

Mandaic language

MandaicClassical MandaicMandean
The more widely spoken Eastern Aramaic and Mandaic forms are today largely restricted to Iraqi Kurdistan, northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey, whilst the severely endangered Western Neo-Aramaic is spoken by small communities in northwestern Syria.
It is a variety of Aramaic notable for its use of vowel letters in writing (see Mandaic script) and the striking amount of Persian influence in its lexicon.

Old Aramaic language

Imperial AramaicOld AramaicAramaic
Aramaic (Arāmāyā; Old Aramaic:𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Imperial Aramaic: 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡀; square script אַרָמָיָא, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. The influx eventually resulted in the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC) adopting an Akkadian-influenced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of its empire.
Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 AD).

Mandaeans

MandeansMandaeanMandean
Neo-Aramaic languages are still spoken today as a first language by many communities of Syriac Christians, Jews (in particular, the Kurdish Jews), and Mandaeans of Western Asia, most numerously by Chaldeans, Syriacs and Assyrians with numbers of fluent speakers ranging approximately from 1 million to 2 million, with the main languages among Assyrians being Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (235,000 speakers), Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (1 million speakers) and Turoyo (112,000 to 450,000 speakers), together with a number of smaller closely related languages with no more than 5,000 to 10,000 speakers between them.
The Mandaeans were originally native speakers of Mandaic, a Semitic language that evolved from Eastern Middle Aramaic, before many switched to colloquial Iraqi Arabic and Modern Persian.

Book of Ezra

EzraBook of Esdras1 Esdræ
Aramaic was the language of Jesus, who spoke the Galilean dialect during his public ministry, as well as the language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and also one of the languages of the Talmud.
The book contains several documents presented as historical inclusions, written in Aramaic while the surrounding text is in Hebrew (1:2–4, 4:8–16, 4:17–22, 5:7–17, 6:3–5, 6:6–12, 7:12–26)

Afroasiatic languages

Afro-AsiaticAfroasiaticAfro-Asiatic languages
Aramaic (Arāmāyā; Old Aramaic:𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Imperial Aramaic: 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡀; square script אַרָמָיָא, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
He knew of Semitic through his study of Arabic, Hebrew, and Aramaic.

Parthian language

ParthianPahlaviIranic
(That use of written Aramaic subsequently led to the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet and—as logograms—some Aramaic vocabulary in the Pahlavi scripts, which were used by several Middle Iranian languages, including Parthian, Middle Persian, Sogdian, and Khwarazmian).
The Parthian language was rendered using the Pahlavi writing system, which had two essential characteristics: First, its script derived from Aramaic, the script (and language) of the Achaemenid chancellery (i.e. Imperial Aramaic).

Chaldea

ChaldaeaChaldeansChaldees
In fact, Arameans carried their language and writing into Mesopotamia by voluntary migration, by forced exile of conquering armies, and by nomadic Chaldean invasions of Babylonia during the period from 1200 to 1000 BC.
The name appears in Hebrew in the Bible as ' and in Aramaic as ' .

Akkadian language

AkkadianBabylonianAssyrian
The influx eventually resulted in the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC) adopting an Akkadian-influenced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of its empire.
However, it began to decline during the Neo-Assyrian Empire around the eighth century BC, being marginalized by Aramaic during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III.