Aramaic alphabet

AramaicAramaic scriptImperial AramaicAramaic charactersAramaic square scriptsquare-scriptAramaean scriptAramaic square-scriptAramaic writing systemAramaic-derived script
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BC.wikipedia
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Aramaic language

AramaicChaldeeAram.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BC. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew.
The Aramaic alphabet was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets.

Phoenician alphabet

PhoenicianSemiticPhoenician letter
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BC. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew.
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is a local variant of Phoenician, as is the Aramaic alphabet, the ancestor of the modern Arabic.

Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

Paleo-HebrewPaleo-Hebrew scriptancient Hebrew
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BC. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew.
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet began to fall out of use by the Jews in the 5th century BCE, when the Aramaic alphabet was adopted as the predominant writing system for Hebrew.

Hebrew alphabet

HebrewHebrew scriptHebrew letters
Among the scripts in modern use, the Hebrew alphabet bears the closest relation to the Imperial Aramaic script of the 5th century BC, with an identical letter inventory and, for the most part, nearly identical letter shapes.
The present "Jewish script" or "square script", on the contrary, is a stylized form of the Aramaic alphabet and was known by Jewish sages as the Ashuri alphabet (lit.

Alphabet

alphabeticalphabetsalphabetical
The Aramaic alphabet is historically significant since virtually all modern Middle Eastern writing systems can be traced back to it as well as numerous non-Chinese writing systems of Central and East Asia.
By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Canaanite and Aramaic.

Abjad

consonantal alphabetSemitic abjadsabjads
Writing systems (like the Aramaic one) that indicate consonants but do not indicate most vowels other than by means of matres lectionis or added diacritical signs, have been called abjads by Peter T. Daniels to distinguish them from alphabets, such as the Greek alphabet, which represent vowels more systematically.
Phoenician gave rise to a number of new writing systems, including the Greek alphabet and Aramaic, a widely used abjad.

Syriac alphabet

SyriacestrangelaEstrangelo
The development of cursive versions of Aramaic also led to the creation of the Syriac, Palmyrene and Mandaic alphabets, which formed the basis of the historical scripts of Central Asia, such as the Sogdian and Mongolian alphabets. Syriac and Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects are written in the Syriac alphabet.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, and it shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic and the traditional Mongolian scripts.

Mandaic alphabet

Mandaicits alphabet
The development of cursive versions of Aramaic also led to the creation of the Syriac, Palmyrene and Mandaic alphabets, which formed the basis of the historical scripts of Central Asia, such as the Sogdian and Mongolian alphabets.
The Mandaic alphabet is thought to have evolved between the 2nd and 7th century CE from either a cursive form of Aramaic (as did Syriac) or from the Parthian chancery script.

Sogdia

SogdianSogdiansSoghdian
The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC in the Persian Achaemenid administration of Bactria and Sogdiana.
Darius I introduced the Aramaic writing system and coin currency to Central Asia, in addition to incorporating Sogdians into his standing army as regular soldiers and cavalrymen.

Nabataean alphabet

NabataeanNabataean scriptNabatean
The Hebrew and Nabataean alphabets, as they stood by the Roman era, were little changed in style from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet.
The alphabet is descended from the Aramaic alphabet.

Cuneiform

cuneiform scriptcuneiform writingcuneiform inscriptions
Aramaic gradually became the lingua franca throughout the Middle East, with the script at first complementing and then displacing Assyrian cuneiform, as the predominant writing system.
From the 6th century, the Akkadian language was marginalized by Aramaic, written in the Aramaean alphabet, but Neo-Assyrian cuneiform remained in use in literary tradition well into times of Parthian Empire (250 BC – AD 226).

Sogdian alphabet

Sogdianwriting systemOld Sogdian and Sogdian
The development of cursive versions of Aramaic also led to the creation of the Syriac, Palmyrene and Mandaic alphabets, which formed the basis of the historical scripts of Central Asia, such as the Sogdian and Mongolian alphabets. The Old Turkic script is generally considered to have its ultimate origins in Aramaic, in particular via the Pahlavi or Sogdian alphabets, as suggested by V. Thomsen, or possibly via Karosthi (cf., Issyk inscription).
The alphabet is derived from Syriac, a descendant script of the Aramaic alphabet.

Hebrew language

HebrewHeb.Hebrew-language
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BC. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew.
Late Biblical Hebrew, from the 5th to the 3rd centuries BCE, that corresponds to the Persian Period and is represented by certain texts in the Hebrew Bible, notably the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. Basically similar to Classical Biblical Hebrew, apart from a few foreign words adopted for mainly governmental terms, and some syntactical innovations such as the use of the particle she- (alternative of 'ʾasher' "that, which, who"). It adopted the Imperial Aramaic script (from which the modern Hebrew script descends).

Pahlavi scripts

PahlaviPahlavi writing systemMiddle Persian
The Aramaic script would survive as the essential characteristics of the Iranian Pahlavi writing system. The Old Turkic script is generally considered to have its ultimate origins in Aramaic, in particular via the Pahlavi or Sogdian alphabets, as suggested by V. Thomsen, or possibly via Karosthi (cf., Issyk inscription).
the use of a specific Aramaic-derived script;

Palmyrene alphabet

Palmyrene
The development of cursive versions of Aramaic also led to the creation of the Syriac, Palmyrene and Mandaic alphabets, which formed the basis of the historical scripts of Central Asia, such as the Sogdian and Mongolian alphabets.
Palmyrene was derived from cursive versions of the Aramaic alphabet and shares many of its characteristics:

Old Turkic alphabet

Old TurkicOrkhon scriptOrkhon
The Old Turkic script is generally considered to have its ultimate origins in Aramaic, in particular via the Pahlavi or Sogdian alphabets, as suggested by V. Thomsen, or possibly via Karosthi (cf., Issyk inscription).
According to some sources, Orkhon script is derived from variants of the Aramaic alphabet, in particular via the Pahlavi and Sogdian alphabets, as suggested by Vilhelm Thomsen, or possibly via Kharosthi (cf.

Mater lectionis

matres lectionisplenealso
The letters all represent consonants, some of which are also used as matres lectionis to indicate long vowels.
Similarly the vowel letters in the Avestan alphabet were adapted from matres lectionis in the version of the Aramaic alphabet adapted as the Pahlavi scripts.

Syriac language

SyriacClassical SyriacSyriac-Aramaic
Syriac and Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects are written in the Syriac alphabet.
It is written in the Syriac alphabet, a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet.

He (letter)

HeHeiHeh
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ه . Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.

Achaemenid Empire

PersianPersian EmpireAchaemenid
That is primarily from the widespread usage of the Aramaic language as both a lingua franca and the official language of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires, and their successor, the Achaemenid Empire.
Many centuries after the fall of the empire, Aramaic script and – as ideograms – Aramaic vocabulary would survive as the essential characteristics of the Pahlavi writing system.

Dalet

דdālD
Dalet (, also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).

Heth

Hetחchet
or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ḥēt, Hebrew Ḥēth, Aramaic Ḥēth, Syriac Ḥēṯ ܚ, and Arabic Ḥā' ح.

Yodh

Yudyodي
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd י, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܝ, and Arabic ي (first in abjadi order, but last in modern order).

Teth

Tetטṭēt
Teth, also written as or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt, Hebrew Ṭēt, Aramaic Ṭēth, Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order.