Araucanía (historic region)

Map showing the "old" and the "new" frontiers of Mapuche Araucanía established by 1870 through the occupation of the Araucanía.

The Spanish name given to the region of Chile inhabited by the Mapuche peoples known as the Moluche in the 18th century.

- Araucanía (historic region)
Map showing the "old" and the "new" frontiers of Mapuche Araucanía established by 1870 through the occupation of the Araucanía.

102 related topics

Relevance

Araucanía Region

One of Chile's 16 first-order administrative divisions, and comprises two provinces: Malleco in the north and Cautín in the south.

One of Chile's 16 first-order administrative divisions, and comprises two provinces: Malleco in the north and Cautín in the south.

The administrative Araucanía Region was established in 1974, in what was the core of the larger historic region of Araucanía.

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century

Huilliche people

The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile.

The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile.

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century
Map showing indigenous peoples of Chile; the Huilliche are shaded peach, near the middle of the country.

According to Ricardo E. Latcham the term Huilliche started to be used in Spanish after the second founding of Valdivia in 1645, adopting the usage of the Mapuches of Araucanía for the southern Mapuche tribes.

Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.

Conquest of Chile

Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.
Pedro de Valdivia
The Juan Bautista Pastene expedition to southern Chile in 1544.

The Conquest of Chile is a period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1598–1604 in the Araucanía region.

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)

Moluche

Indigenous people of Chile.

Indigenous people of Chile.

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)

At the beginning of the Conquest of Chile by the Spanish Empire the Moluche lived in what came to be known as Araucanía.

Biobío River

Second largest river in Chile.

Second largest river in Chile.

The Biobío at Concepción close to where it meets the sea

The Biobío was the traditional borderline, or "La Frontera", during the later part of the War of Arauco between La Araucanía, the southern Mapuche self-ruled areas and northern Spanish-ruled Captaincy General of Chile.

Map of the Araucanía from the 18th century, showing a large part of the territory in which the Arauco War was fought.

Arauco War

Map of the Araucanía from the 18th century, showing a large part of the territory in which the Arauco War was fought.
Pedro de Valdivia
Doña Inés de Suárez in defending the city of Santiago
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Picture from Alonso de Ovalle's Historia de Chile
Picture "El joven Lautaro" of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of its people.
García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete

The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

The Mapuche are particularly concentrated in the Araucanía region.

Run on the Fourth National Bank, No. 20 Nassau Street, New York City, 1873. From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, October 4, 1873.

Long Depression

Worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through March 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used.

Worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through March 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used.

Run on the Fourth National Bank, No. 20 Nassau Street, New York City, 1873. From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, October 4, 1873.
Real gross national product per capita of the United States 1869–1918

Another response to the economic crisis, according to Jorge Pinto Rodríguez, was the new pulse of conquest of indigenous lands that took place in Araucanía in the 1880s.

The image of the United States as a melting pot was popularized by the 1908 play The Melting Pot.

Melting pot

Monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" with a common culture; an alternative being a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural backgrounds, possessing the potential to create disharmony within the previous culture.

Monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" with a common culture; an alternative being a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural backgrounds, possessing the potential to create disharmony within the previous culture.

The image of the United States as a melting pot was popularized by the 1908 play The Melting Pot.
Gold croeseid of Croesus c.550 BC, depicting the Lydian lion and Greek bull - partly in recognition of transnational parentage.
Immigrant population in Argentina (1869–1991)
A Redenção de Cam (Redemption of Ham), by Galician painter Modesto Brocos, 1895, Museu Nacional de Belas Artes. The painting depicts a black grandmother, mulatta mother, white father and their quadroon child, hence three generations of hypergamy through racial whitening.

Besides Araucanian Mapuche and Quechua speaking populations a wide array of disparate indigenous peoples were exported to Central Chile by the Spanish for example peoples from Chiloé Archipelago, Huarpes from the arid areas across the Andes, and likely also some Chonos from the Patagonian archipelagoes.

Distribution of pre-Hispanic people of Chile

Picunche

The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.

The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.

Distribution of pre-Hispanic people of Chile

There Picunches mingled with disparate indigenous peoples brought in from Araucanía (Mapuche), Chiloé (Huilliche, Cunco, Chono, Poyas ) and Cuyo (Huarpe ).