Arboreal locomotion

arborealscansorialarboreallytree-dwellingarborealityclimbingtree dwellinglive in treessemi-arborealtree-climbing
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.wikipedia
1,185 Related Articles

Animal locomotion

locomotionlocomotor activitylocomotor
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.
Animals move through, or on, four types of environment: aquatic (in or on water), terrestrial (on ground or other surface, including arboreal, or tree-dwelling), fossorial (underground), and aerial (in the air).

Brachiation

brachiatingbrachiatebrachiates
Arboreal animals frequently have elongated limbs that help them cross gaps, reach fruit or other resources, test the firmness of support ahead, and in some cases, to brachiate.
Brachiation (from "brachium", Latin for "arm"), or arm swinging, is a form of arboreal locomotion in which primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms.

Phalangeriformes

possumspossumAustralasian cousin
Many arboreal species, such as tree porcupines, green tree pythons, emerald tree boas, chameleons, silky anteaters, spider monkeys, and possums, use prehensile tails to grasp branches.
Phalangeriformes is a suborder of any of about 70 small to medium-sized arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea, and Sulawesi (and introduced to New Zealand and China).

Tree snail

Some animals are exclusively arboreal in habitat, such as the tree snail.
Tree snail is a common name that is applied to various kinds of tropical air-breathing land snails, pulmonate gastropod mollusks that have shells, and that live in trees, in other words, are exclusively arboreal in habitat.

Suminia

The earliest known tetrapod with specializations that adapted it for climbing trees was Suminia, a synapsid of the Late Permian, about 260 million years ago.
More recently found fossils indicate that it led an arboreal lifestyle.

Tree frog

tree frogstreefroghylid
Wet adhesion is common in tree frogs and arboreal salamanders, and functions either by suction or by capillary adhesion.
A tree frog is any species of frog that spends a major portion of its lifespan in trees, known as an arboreal state.

Sloth

Folivoraslothstree sloth
Some species of primate, bat, and all species of sloth achieve passive stability by hanging beneath the branch.
Sloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rain forests of South America and Central America.

Primate

primatesnon-human primatesnon-human primate
Some species of primate, bat, and all species of sloth achieve passive stability by hanging beneath the branch.
Some primates, including gorillas, humans and baboons, are primarily terrestrial rather than arboreal, but all species have adaptations for climbing trees.

Chameleon

ChamaeleonidaechameleonsCaméléon
Many arboreal species, such as tree porcupines, green tree pythons, emerald tree boas, chameleons, silky anteaters, spider monkeys, and possums, use prehensile tails to grasp branches.
The feet of chameleons are highly adapted to arboreal locomotion, and species such as Chamaeleo namaquensis that have secondarily adopted a terrestrial habit have retained the same foot morphology with little modification.

Flying frog

flying frogsflying' frogsgliding
Size relating to weight affects gliding animals such as the reduced weight per snout-vent length for 'flying' frogs. Some animals can slow their descent in the air using a method known as parachuting, such as Rhacophorus (a "flying frog" species) that has adapted toe membranes allowing it to fall more slowly after leaping from trees.
Other (non-flying) arboreal frogs can also descend, but only at angles greater than 45°, which is referred to as parachuting.

Spider monkey

Atelesspider monkeysspider
Many arboreal species, such as tree porcupines, green tree pythons, emerald tree boas, chameleons, silky anteaters, spider monkeys, and possums, use prehensile tails to grasp branches. In the spider monkey and crested gecko, the tip of the tail has either a bare patch or adhesive pad, which provide increased friction. Only a few species are brachiators, and all of these are primates; it is a major means of locomotion among spider monkeys and gibbons, and is occasionally used by the female orangutans.
This adaptation to their strictly arboreal lifestyle serves as a fifth hand.

Crested gecko

Correlophus ciliatusRhacodactylus ciliatusNew Caledonian crested gecko
In the spider monkey and crested gecko, the tip of the tail has either a bare patch or adhesive pad, which provide increased friction.
They are a mostly arboreal species, preferring to inhabit the canopy of the New Caledonian rainforests, and because of this they can jump considerably well.

Orangutan

orangutansorang-utanPongo
Only a few species are brachiators, and all of these are primates; it is a major means of locomotion among spider monkeys and gibbons, and is occasionally used by the female orangutans.
Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes and spend most of their time in trees.

Silky anteater

CyclopesCyclopes didactyluspygmy anteater
Many arboreal species, such as tree porcupines, green tree pythons, emerald tree boas, chameleons, silky anteaters, spider monkeys, and possums, use prehensile tails to grasp branches.
Silky anteaters are nocturnal and arboreal, found in lowland rainforests with continuous canopy, where they can move to different places without the need to descend from trees.

Rhacophorus

flying frogs
Some animals can slow their descent in the air using a method known as parachuting, such as Rhacophorus (a "flying frog" species) that has adapted toe membranes allowing it to fall more slowly after leaping from trees.
These frogs have long toes with strong webbing between them, enabling the animals to slow their fall to a glide, a form of arboreal locomotion known as 'parachuting'.

Gait

gallopleaping gaitsaction
Specifically, arboreal mammals take longer steps, extend their limbs further forwards and backwards during a step, adopt a more 'crouched' posture to lower their center of mass, and use a diagonal sequence gait.
Lateral sequence gaits during walking and running are most common in mammals, but arboreal mammals such as monkeys, some opossums, and kinkajous use diagonal sequence walks for enhanced stability.

Phalangeridae

phalangeridAiluropinaebrushtail possums
brushtail possums
Considered a type of possum, most species are arboreal, and they inhabit a wide range of forest habitats from alpine woodland to eucalypt forest and tropical jungle.

Colugo

DermopteraCynocephalidaecolugos
Colugos
Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia, whose closest non-colugo relatives are primates.

Opossum

DidelphidaeDidelphimorphiaopossums
opossums
They tend to be semi-arboreal omnivores, although there are many exceptions.

Gecko

geckosspatulaeGecko adhesion
Dry adhesion is best typified by the specialized toes of geckos, which use van der Waals forces to adhere to many substrates, even glass.

Tree squirrel

Albino and white squirrelssquirrelwhite squirrel
Tree squirrels and many other rodents
They include over a hundred arboreal species native to all continents except Antarctica and Oceania.

Treeshrew

Scandentiatree shrewtree shrews
Treeshrews
Though called 'treeshrews', and despite having previously been classified in Insectivora, they are not true shrews, and not all species live in trees.

Rodent

rodentsRodentiaRodentia indet.
Tree squirrels and many other rodents
Species can be arboreal, fossorial (burrowing), or semiaquatic.

Brown tree snake

Boiga irregularisbrowncommon brown tree snake
Brown Tree Snakes
The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), also known as the brown catsnake, is an arboreal rear-fanged colubrid snake native to eastern and northern coastal Australia, eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi to Papua), Papua New Guinea, and many islands in northwestern Melanesia.

Kinkajou

PotosPotos flavuskinkajous
Kinkajous
Kinkajous are arboreal, a lifestyle they evolved independently; they are not closely related to any other tree-dwelling mammal group (primates, some mustelids, etc.).