A report on Arc lamp

The 15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in the IMAX projection system.
A mercury arc lamp from a fluorescence microscope.
A krypton long arc lamp (top) is shown above a xenon flashtube. The two lamps, used for laser pumping, are very different in the shape of the electrodes, in particular, the cathode (on the left).
A krypton arc lamp during operation.
A carbon arc lamp, cover removed, on the point of ignition. This model requires manual adjustment of the electrodes
An electric arc, demonstrating the “arch” effect.
Early experimental carbon arc light powered by liquid batteries, similar to Davy's
Medical carbon arc lamp used to treat skin conditions, 1909
Self-regulating arc lamp proposed by William Edwards Staite and William Petrie in 1847

Lamp that produces light by an electric arc .

- Arc lamp
The 15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in the IMAX projection system.

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Incandescent (left) and compact fluorescent (right) light bulbs turned on

Electric light

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Device that produces visible light from electric power.

Device that produces visible light from electric power.

Incandescent (left) and compact fluorescent (right) light bulbs turned on
Elaborate light in Denver, Colorado
Electric light longevity and brightness testing in an integrating sphere
Sign with instructions on the use of light bulbs
A tablet at St John the Baptist Church, Hagley commemorates the installation of electric light in 1934.
Top, two compact fluorescent lamps. Bottom, two fluorescent tube lamps. A matchstick, left, is shown for scale.
LED lamp with E27 Edison screw base
The 15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in the IMAX projection system.
A mercury arc lamp from a fluorescence microscope.
In this composite image from October 2012, human-made lights highlight particularly developed or populated areas of the Earth's surface, including the seaboards of Europe, the eastern United States, India, Japan and South Korea.
A clear glass 60 W light bulb
The cross in a circle usually represents a lamp as an indicator. (ANSI/IEEE Std 315A-1986)
The semicircular dent in a circle, which usually represents a lamp as a source of light or illumination.

English chemist Humphry Davy developed the first incandescent light in 1802, followed by the first practical electric arc light in 1806.

15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors

Xenon arc lamp

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Highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.

Highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.

15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors
An early short arc xenon lamp, the Osram-STUD XBO 1001 of ~1954
An end-view of a 15 kW IMAX lamp showing the liquid-cooling ports
An Osram 100 W xenon/mercury short-arc lamp in reflector
Perspective view of 3 kW lamp showing plastic safety shield used during shipping.
Output profile of a xenon arc lamp.
A xenon arc lamp (Osram XBO 4000W).
A Cermax 2 kW xenon lamp from a video projector. A pair of heatsinks are clamped on the two metal bands around the perimeter, which also double to supply power to the lamp's electrodes.
A 1 kW xenon short-arc lamp power supply with the cover removed.

Xenon arc lamps can be roughly divided into three categories: continuous-output xenon short-arc lamps, continuous-output xenon long-arc lamps, and xenon flash lamps (which are usually considered separately).

An electric arc between two nails

Electric arc

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Electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge.

Electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge.

An electric arc between two nails
Natural lightning is now considered an electric spark, not an arc.
Electricity arcs between the power rail and electrical pickup "shoe" on a London Underground train
Electric arc between strands of wire.
An electric arc can melt calcium oxide
A time exposure of a Jacob's ladder
A demonstration of Jacob's ladder
A burn in a plug caused by an electric arc during a short circuit.

In the late 19th century, electric arc lighting was in wide use for public lighting.

A 230-volt incandescent light bulb with a medium-sized E27 (Edison 27 mm) male screw base. The filament is visible as the mostly horizontal line between the vertical supply wires.

Incandescent light bulb

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Electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows.

Electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows.

A 230-volt incandescent light bulb with a medium-sized E27 (Edison 27 mm) male screw base. The filament is visible as the mostly horizontal line between the vertical supply wires.
A scanning electron microscope image of the tungsten filament of an incandescent light bulb
Elaborate light in Denver, Colorado
Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison's shop in Menlo Park
Alexander Lodygin on 1951 Soviet postal stamp
Carbon filament lamps, showing darkening of bulb
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
Historical plaque at Underhill, the first house to be lit by electric lights
Comparison of Edison, Maxim, and Swan bulbs, 1885
Edison carbon filament lamps, early 1880s
Thomas Alva Edison
by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, 27 January 1880
Hanaman (left) and Just (right), the inventors of the tungsten bulbs
Hungarian advertising of the Tungsram-bulb from 1906. This was the first light bulb that used a filament made from tungsten instead of carbon. The inscription reads: wire lamp with a drawn wire – indestructible.
Spectrum of an incandescent lamp at 2200 K, showing most of its emission as invisible infrared light.
Xenon halogen lamp with an E27 base, which can replace a non-halogen bulb
Thermal image of an incandescent bulb. 22–175 °C = 71–347 °F.
Spectral power distribution of a 25 W incandescent light bulb.
Destruction of a lamp filament due to air penetration
The 1902 tantalum filament light bulb was the first one to have a metal filament. This one is from 1908.
Close-up of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp. The two ring-shaped structures left and right are filament supports.
Incandescent light bulbs come in a range of shapes and sizes.
A package of four 60-watt light bulbs
Left to right: MR16 with GU10 base, MR16 with GU5.3 base, MR11 with GU4 or GZ4 base
40-watt light bulbs with standard E10, E14 and E27 Edison screw base
The double-contact bayonet cap on an incandescent bulb
The Centennial Light is the longest-lasting light bulb in the world.
Various lighting spectra as viewed in a diffraction grating. Upper left: fluorescent lamp, upper right: incandescent bulb, lower left: white LED, lower right: candle flame.

They provided the intense concentrated light of an arc lamp but were easier to operate.

Sir Humphry Davy, Bt
by Thomas Phillips

Humphry Davy

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Sir Humphry Davy, Bt
by Thomas Phillips
James Watt in 1792 by Carl Frederik von Breda
Sir Humphry Davy's Researches chemical and philosophical: chiefly concerning nitrous oxide (1800), pp. 556 and 557 (right), outlining potential anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide in relieving pain during surgery
1802 satirical cartoon by James Gillray showing a Royal Institution lecture on pneumatics, with Davy holding the bellows and Count Rumford looking on at extreme right. Dr Thomas Garnett is the lecturer, holding the victim's nose.
Sodium metal, about 10 g, under oil
A voltaic pile
Magnesium metal crystals
Sir Humphry Davy by Thomas Lawrence
A diamond crystal in its matrix
The Davy lamp
Statue of Davy in Penzance, Cornwall, holding his safety lamp
Michael Faraday, portrait by Thomas Phillips c. 1841–1842
Davy's grave at Cimetière Plainpalais in Geneva

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet, (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and inventor from Cornwall who invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp.

ATS officers-in-training crew a 90 cm searchlight in Western Command, 1944

Searchlight

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ATS officers-in-training crew a 90 cm searchlight in Western Command, 1944
Russian troops use a searchlight against a Japanese night attack during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904
Homeland Security helicopter utilizing its searchlight.
American searchlight crew and equipment in France during WWI
Searchlights pierce the night sky during an air-raid practice on Gibraltar, 1942
Members of a Royal Artillery, anti-aircraft searchlight detachment clean the mirror of their searchlight, Italy, April 1945
Searchlights at New Year's Eve 2012 in Bonifacio Global City, Philippines
Use of searchlights at the Luminato arts festival in Toronto
Searchlights demonstrating the height of Tokyo Skytree before its construction in 2007
Luxor Sky Beam
Tribute in Light, representing the World Trade Center twin towers in remembrance of the September 11 attacks

A searchlight (or spotlight) is an apparatus that combines an extremely bright source (traditionally a carbon arc lamp) with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction.

Edison, c. 1922

Thomas Edison

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American inventor and businessman.

American inventor and businessman.

Edison, c. 1922
Edison as a boy, 1861
Edison's Menlo Park Laboratory, reconstructed at Greenfield Village at Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan
Photograph of Edison with his phonograph (2nd model), taken in Mathew Brady's Washington, D.C. studio in April 1878
Thomas Edison's first successful model of light bulb, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879
U.S. Patent #223898: Electric-Lamp, issued January 27, 1880
The Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company's new steamship, the Columbia, was the first commercial application for Edison's incandescent light bulb in 1880.
Extravagant displays of electric lights quickly became a feature of public events, as in this picture from the 1897 Tennessee Centennial Exposition.
Thomas A. Edison Industries Exhibit, Primary Battery section, 1915
Share of the Edison Storage Battery Company, issued October 19, 1903
Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, and Harvey Firestone, respectively. Ft. Myers, Florida, February 11, 1929
Mina Miller Edison in 1906
Portrait of Edison by Abraham Archibald Anderson (1890), National Portrait Gallery
Thomas Edison commemorative stamp, issued on the 100th anniversary of his birth in 1947
Statue of young Thomas Edison by the railroad tracks in Port Huron, Michigan. The Blue Water Bridge can be seen in the background.
Edison in 1915

From the early 1880s, AC arc lighting systems for streets and large spaces had been an expanding business in the US.

35 mm movie projector in operation

Movie projector

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Opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

Opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

35 mm movie projector in operation
Simulation of a spinning zoopraxiscope
An early projector and seats from a movie theater
1910's 35mm hand-cranked tinplate toy movie projector manufactured by Leonhard Müller in Nuremberg, Germany.
35 mm Kinoton FP30ST movie projector, with parts labeled. (Click thumbnail for larger text.)
Mechanical sequence when image is shown twice and then advanced. 
Outer sprockets rotate continuously while the frame advance sprockets are controlled by the mechanism shown – a Geneva drive.
Imaging lens Diastar of an Askania 35 mm movie projector (focal length: 400 mm)
Christie AW3 platter, BIG SKY Industries console, and Century SA projector
nonrewind in Royal – Malmö, Sweden
A diagram of the VistaVision format
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the Datasat time code (the dashed line to the far right.)
Simulated wide screen image with 1.96 to 1 ratio as it would be seen in a camera viewfinder or on a theater screen
Simulated anamorphed image with 1.33 to 1 ratio (4:3) as it would appear on a frame of film

In the early 1900s up until the late 1960s, carbon arc lamps were the source of light in almost all theaters in the world.

Hertha Ayrton

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British engineer, mathematician, physicist and inventor, and suffragette.

British engineer, mathematician, physicist and inventor, and suffragette.

Ayrton's house at 41 Norfolk Square in Paddington received an English Heritage blue plaque in 2007.

In the late nineteenth century, electric arc lighting was in wide use for public lighting.

Charles F. Brush

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American engineer, inventor, entrepreneur, and philanthropist.

American engineer, inventor, entrepreneur, and philanthropist.

Arc lamp examples
The world's first automatically operated wind turbine was built in 1888 by Charles F. Brush. It had a 12kW dynamo.
Medallion of Charles F. Brush that hangs outside the Cleveland Arcade on Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio

He had a great interest in science, particularly with Humphry Davy's experiments with the arc light; he tinkered with and built simple electrical devices such as a static electricity machine at age 12, experimenting in a workshop on his parents' farm.