Arch

Deformed arch at the Gozo Aqueduct, Malta
Rossgraben bridge (Rüeggisberg) near Bern, Switzerland, showing the hinge at mid-span of this three-hinged arch.
Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula in Brussels, Belgium, with a central pointed arch window, typical of Gothic architecture
Semi-circular arches using brick and/or stone block construction at the Great Wall, China
Roman aqueduct near Nîmes, France: an arcade, employing the circular arch
Horseshoe arches in the 9th-century Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan, Tunisia
Interior vaulted ceiling of Notre Dame de Paris, showing the ribs at the intersection of several arches
Tyne Bridge over the River Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK (2004)
Arch of Caracalla, a Roman triumphal arch in Tébessa, Algeria (2016)
A series of parabolic arches on the Móra d'Ebre bridge, Catalonia, Spain (2005)
Triangular arch
Round or semicircular arch
Segmental arch (less than a semicircle)
Unequal round or {{linktext|rampant}} arch
Lancet arch
Equilateral arch
Shouldered flat arch (see also jack arch)
Trefoil or three-foiled cusped arch
Horseshoe arch
Three-centered arch
Elliptical arch
Inflexed arch
Ogee arch
Reverse ogee arch
Four-centred or Tudor arch
Parabolic arch
Depressed Tudor arch on Layer Marney Tower in Essex, England
Blind arches on the Church of San Tirso in Sahagún, León, Spain
Washington Square Arch, a triumphal arch in Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City
Delicate Arch, a natural arch in Arches National Park near Moab, Utah
A rock balance sculpture in the form of an arch
Medial longitudinal arch of the human foot (Gray's Anatomy)
Restored Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon, Ashkelon, Israel (2014)
Reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin (2014)
Taq Kasra (Archway of Ctesiphon), Salman Pak, Iraq (1864)
Arch of Augustus, Rimini, Emilia-Romagna, Italy (2015)
Arch of Gallienus, Rome (2006)
Arch of Hadrian, Athens, Greece (2013)
Arch of Constantine, Rome, commemorating a victory by Constantine I in 312 AD (2007)
The Arc de Triomphe, Paris; a 19th-century triumphal arch modelled on the classical Roman design (1998)
Soldiers' and Sailors' Arch in the Grand Army Plaza, Brooklyn, New York City (2007)
Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri; a sculpture based on a catenary arch (2011)
Pont Flavien over the River Touloubre in Saint-Chamas, Bouches-du-Rhône, France (2008)
Old stone bridge in Kerava, Finland (2011)
Bridge of Seonamsa Temple, Suncheon, South Jeolla Province, South Korea (1979)
Grosvenor Bridge over the River Dee in Chester, Cheshire, England, UK (2007)
Union Arch Bridge carrying the Washington Aqueduct and MacArthur Boulevard (formerly named Conduit Road) in Cabin John, Montgomery County, Maryland (2008)
Anji Bridge over the Xiaohe River, Hebei Province, China (2007)
The dry stone bridge, so called Porta Rosa (4th century BC), in Elea, Province of Salerno, Campania, Italy (2005)
Bridge of Sighs, Venice, Italy (2001)
Pont du Gard, a Roman aqueduct in Vers-Pont-du-Gard, Gard, France (2014)
Bridge in Český Krumlov, Czech Republic (2004)
Rialto Bridge over the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy (2011)
Pont de Bercy over the River Seine, Paris, carrying the Paris Métro on its upper deck and a boulevard extension on its lower deck (2006)
Arlington Memorial Bridge over the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. (2007)
Francis Scott Key Bridge over the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. (2006)
Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge carrying Interstate 95 (I-95) and the Capital Beltway over the Potomac River between Alexandria, Virginia and Oxon Hill, Maryland (2007)
Arrábida Bridge over the Douro River connecting Porto, and Vila Nova de Gaia, in the Norte Region, Portugal (2011)
Rainbow Bridge over the Niagara River connecting Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada (2012)
Hell Gate Bridge over the East River, New York City
Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (2010)
Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine River, Remagen, Germany, showing damage before collapse during the Battle of Remagen in World War II (1945)
Lianxiang bridge over the Xiang River, Xiangtan, Hunan Province, China (2007)
Zhivopisny Bridge over the Moskva River, Moscow, Russia (2009)
Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge over the Trinity River in Dallas, Texas (2012)
Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge crossing Paranoá Lake, Brasília, Brazil (2007)
Gateshead Millennium Bridge over the River Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK (2005)
Eiffel Tower, Paris (2009)
Arch supporting the Eiffel Tower, Paris (2015)
The second Wembley Stadium in London, built in 2007 (2007)
The first San Mamés Stadium, in Bilbao, arch built in 1953, demolished 2013 (2013)
St Pancras railway station, London (2011)
Train shed in St Pancras railway station, London (2010)
Train shed in Victoria Station, London (2006)
Lucerne railway station, Switzerland (2010)
Central railway station, Frankfurt, Germany (2008)
Train shed in Central railway station, Frankfurt, Germany (2005)
Arches in Main Concourse, Grand Central Terminal, Manhattan, New York City (2014)
Interior arches in Washington Union Station, Washington, D.C. (2006)
Arches in Great Hall, Chicago Union Station, Chicago, Illinois (2010)
Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, Germany (2011)
The Colosseum in Rome (2013)
Stonework arches seen in a ruined stonework building – Burg Lippspringe, Germany (2005)
Arches in the Casa-Museo del Libertador Simón Bolívar in Havana, Cuba (2006)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lahabana.com/guide/casa-museo-simon-bolivar/|title=Casa-Museo Simón Bolívar|work=Havana Guide|publisher=lahabana.com|access-date=2 July 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180702121901/http://www.lahabana.com/guide/casa-museo-simon-bolivar/|archive-date=2 July 2018|url-status=dead|df=dmy-all|date=2013-12-22}}</ref>
Arches in dining hall at Kings College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England (2007)
Arches inside Annenberg Hall, Memorial Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2016)
Healy Hall, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. (2009)
Arches in throne room of Neuschwanstein Castle, Bavaria, Germany (1886 photochrom print)
Arches in the Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Andalusia, Spain (2012)
External arches in the Court of the Myrtles, Alhambra, Granada, Andalusia, Spain (2009)
Arches inside the North Gallery, Court of the Myrtles, Alhambra, Granada, Andalusia, Spain (2010)
Arches in the nave of the church in monastery of Alcobaça, Portugal (2008)
North facade of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (2008)
Arches in choir of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (2013)
Arches in nave of Westminster Abbey, City of Westminster, London (2006)
Arches inside the Washington National Cathedral, Washington, D.C. (2005)
Interior arches in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City (2009)
Amir Chakhmaq Complex, Yazd, Iran (2014)
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey (2013)
Arches inside the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey (1983)
Arches inside the western upper gallery, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey (2007)
Interior arches in the Masjid al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia (2008)
Roof of Masjid al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia (2008)
Dome of the Rock, Old City of Jerusalem (2010)
Arches inside the Dome of the Rock, Old City of Jerusalem (2014)
Arches in the Shahi Mosque, Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan (2016)
Taj Mahal in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India (2009)
The Great Gate (Darwaza-i-rauza): Entrance to grounds of Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India (2004)
Arches inside the Taj Majal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Arches in Main Reading Room, Thomas Jefferson Building, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (2009)
Arches in Great Hall, Thomas Jefferson Building, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (2007)
Art Deco arches on Chrysler Building, Manhattan, New York City (2005)
New York Public Library Main Branch, Manhattan, New York City (2016)
Arches inside the entrance of New York Public Library Main Branch, Manhattan, New York City (2012)
Arches in Great Hall, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Manhattan, New York City (2012)
Arches in Sculpture Gallery, West Building, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (2007)
Arches inside the Legion of Honor, Lincoln Park, San Francisco, California (2010)
Arches near the Jordan Staircase, Winter Palace, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia (2015)
Arches in Pavilion Hall, Small Hermitage, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia (2015)
Arches in Salle du Manège, Louvre Palace, Paris (2007)
Arches in Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, Yvelines, France (2013)
Arches in Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, Yvelines, France (2011)
Arches in Westminster Hall, Palace of Westminster, City of Westminster, London (2011)
Arches in St. Stevens Hall, Palace of Westminster, City of Westminster, London (2007)
Horseshoe arch inside the Aljafería Palace, Zaragoza, Spain (2004)
Multifoil arches inside the Aljafería Palace, Zaragoza, Spain (2004)
Catenary arches inside the Casa Milà in Barcelona, Spain by Antoni Gaudí (2010}
Rajasthani style arches inside the 16th-century City Palace, Udaipur, India (2013)
Main façade of the Itamaraty Palace in Brasília, Brazil, decorated with many arches (2005)
Arches inside the National Building Museum (formerly Pension Building), Washington, D.C. (2007)
Front entrance of the Old Post Office Building in Washington, D.C. (2006)
Arches inside the Old Post Office Building in Washington, D.C. (2009)
Bankstown Reservoir, Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (2018)
Arches in Merzouga, Morocco (2011)
Crypt of the Popes in the Catacomb of Callixtus, Rome (2007)
Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb chamber, Luoyang (2008)
Entrance to Washington family tomb at Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia (2014)
Natural Bridge in Rockbridge County, Virginia (2014)
Jiangzhou Natural Bridge, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (2012)
Landscape Arch, Arches National Park, Utah (2016)
Double O Arch, Arches National Park, Utah (2007)
Aloba Arch, Ennedi-Est Region, Chad (2015)
Shipton's Arch, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China (2011)
Darwin's Arch, Galápagos Archipelago, Pacific Ocean (2006)
Shah Abbas Arch Dam (Tagh E Shah Abbas), Tabas County, South Khorasan Province, Iran (2011)
Hoover Dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, Clark County, Nevada and Mohave County, Arizona (2017)
El Atazar Dam on the Lozoya River near Madrid, Spain (2014)

[[File:Arch illustration.svg|thumb|upright=1|A masonry arch 1. Keystone

- Arch

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Arch dam

Concrete dam that is curved upstream in plan.

The Katse Dam, a 185 m high concrete arch dam in Lesotho.
The Morrow Point Dam is a double-curvature arch dam.
The Idukki Dam in Kerala, India is a double-curvature arch dam
Shāh Abbās Arch near Kurit Dam – 14th century
The Enguri Dam in the Caucasus of Georgia.
The Idukki Dam in Kerala, India.
El Atazar Dam, near Madrid

The arch dam is designed so that the force of the water against it, known as hydrostatic pressure, presses against the arch, causing the arch to straighten slightly and strengthening the structure as it pushes into its foundation or abutments.

Structure

Arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.

The structure of a DNA molecule is essential to its function.
A traditional Sami food storage structure
Gothic quadripartite cross-ribbed vaults of the Saint-Séverin church in Paris
The spiral arrangement of small bright yellow florets that make up the flower head of a sunflower is an example of the highly ordered structure that characterizes all organisms.
A skeletal formula for dopamine
A motif from the Preludes by Chopin, Op. 28 no.6, bars 1–3
In a singly linked list, each element has a data value and a pointer to the next element.

The structural elements can be classified as one-dimensional (ropes, struts, beams, arches), two-dimensional (membranes, plates, slab, shells, vaults), or three-dimensional (solid masses).

Barrel vault

Architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance.

Coffered ceiling of the barrel-vaulted nave in the Temple of Jupiter at Diocletian's Palace in Split, Croatia. Built early 4th century.
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the Rose window at one end of the vault.
The Cloisters, New York City
Roman barrel vault at the villa rustica Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.
Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces.
Barrel vault in a mausoleum at the Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Barrel vault in the early 20th century main post office of Toledo, Ohio

The barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault: effectively a series of arches placed side by side (i.e., one after another).

Corbel arch

Basic principle of corbeled arch design.
Comparison of a generic "true" stone arch (left) and a corbel arch (right).
Royal Palace of Ugarit, Bronze Age Syria.
Corbelled chamber with hieroglyphs in Hattusa
The Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae
Maya corbel arch at Cahal Pech.
A corbelled arch at the tomb of Nasir ud din Mahmud, Ghori, New Delhi
Arches at Nuraghe Santu Antine, Sardinia, 19-18th centuries BC
Doorway of Indo-Parthian Buddhist monastery at Takht-i-Bahi, Pakistan, c. 3rd century AD
Corbelled hallways in the Palace at Palenque (5th-8th c. Maya city), Mexico
Stone corbelled arches at Borobudur (9th century AD) in Java, Indonesia. Note the "T"-shaped central stones.
Brickwork corbelled arch at Ubud{{clarify|reason=Where? There are 3 Wiki articles to possible sites, plus who knows how many more w/o an article.|post-text=Where?|date=August 2020}} in Bali, Indonesia
A brick corbelled arch disintegrating slowly at Mỹ Sơn (4th-14th c. Hindu temples) in Vietnam
The corbel span of Spean Praptos, 12th-century Cambodia
Stone corbelled gateway arch to walls of Angkor Thom (12th-17th c. city) in Cambodia
Stone corbelled arch in the 13th-century Konark temple, India
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque (c. 1229), Ajmer, India; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, early Indo-Islamic architecture

A corbel arch (or corbeled / corbelled arch) is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge.

Voussoir

William Henry Playfair, University of Edinburgh: bevelled edges of each stone block emphasise the voussoirs, which have a curved base and together form a semi-circle at the top of each arch.

A voussoir is a wedge-shaped element, typically a stone, which is used in building an arch or vault.

Triumphal arch

The Arc de Triomphe, Paris
Ehrenpforte Maximilians I. Albrecht Dürer, 1515
The Arch of Titus in Rome, an early Roman imperial triumphal arch with a single archway, built {{circa|81 AD}} by Emperor Domitian to commemorate his brother Titus's victory together with their father, Vespasian, over the Jewish rebellion in Judaea
The Triumphal Arch of Orange in Orange, France, the oldest surviving triple-arched Roman triumphal arch, probably built during the reign of Emperor Augustus (27 BC–14 AD)
The Porte Noire in Besançon, France, a single arch with superposition of two columns, built in 171–175 AD
The Arch of Septimius Severus at Leptis Magna, Libya, a four-arched arcus quadrifrons, built {{circa|203 AD}}
The Arch of Septimius Severus in Rome, built in 203–205 AD to commemorate the Parthian victories of Emperor Septimius Severus and his two sons, Caracalla and Geta
Arch of Caracalla in Tebessa, Algeria, built {{circa|210 AD}} by a general from the city, dedicated to Emperor Caracalla
Arch of Galerius and Rotunda in Thessaloniki, Greece, built in 298–299 AD and dedicated in 303 AD to celebrate the victory of the tetrarch Galerius over the Sassanid Persians and capture of their capital Ctesiphon in 298 AD
The Arch of Constantine in Rome, built in 312–315 AD to commemorate Emperor Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 AD
Titus' triumphal procession depicted on the Arch of Titus, showing the loot captured from Jerusalem in 81 AD
The elaborate carvings and coffered vault of the Arch of Septimius Severus
Galerius (L) attacks Narses (R). Arch of Galerius and Rotunda.
Frieze on the Arch of Constantine, depicting Constantine I distributing gifts to the people
Arco di Trionfo di Castel Nuovo in Naples, a Renaissance monument, built to commemorate Alfonso of Aragon's victorious entry to Naples
The Porte Saint-Denis in Paris, built to commemorate the victories of Louis XIV of France
The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel in Paris, built between 1806 and 1808 to commemorate Napoleon's victories
The Narva Triumphal Arch in Saint Petersburg by Giacomo Quarenghi, built in 1814 to commemorate Russia's victory over Napoleon
Wellington Arch in London, built in 1826–30 to commemorate Britain's victories in the Napoleonic Wars
Soldiers' and Sailors' Arch in New York City, built in 1889–92 to commemorate the United States' victory over the Confederate Rebellion
Arcul de Triumf in Bucharest, built in 1922 to celebrate the victory in WWI and the coronation of HM King Ferdinand and his wife Marie.
The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, the second tallest triumphal arch in the world, built in 1982 to commemorate the Korean resistance to Japan from 1925 to 1945

A triumphal arch is a free-standing monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road.

Vault (architecture)

Gothic rib vault ceiling of the Saint-Séverin church in Paris
Interior elevation view of a Gothic cathedral, with rib-vaulted roof highlighted
Assyrian bas-relief from Nimrud showing domed structures in the background
In a pitched-brick vault the bricks lean (are pitched) against an existing wall.
St Paul's Cathedral Choir looking east, London
Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces
A groin vault viewed from the underside, showing the arris or 'groin'
Plan of a groin vault from above showing resultant outward thrust
Groin vault from above
The rib vault of Reims Cathedral, France
Rib vault of church Sint-Niklaaskerk in Ghent, Belgium
Top of the rib-vaulted ceiling over the nave of Salisbury Cathedral
Rib-vault ceiling, with Lierne ribs, of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482
Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England
Section through the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
Neo-Byzantine vaults in portal of the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, Paris, France
The dome of the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the rose window at one end of the vault.
Gothic Revival vault of Joensuu Church in Joensuu, Finland
Vaults and dome of the Gol Gumbaz
Neobyzantine vaults in Saint Sava. The vaults, 37.7 m high and 24 m wide are designed as concrete boxes. They were prefabricated and lifted with chains to their shown positions.

In architecture, a vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is a self-supporting arched form, usually of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof.

Ancient Roman architecture

Different from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.

The Roman Pantheon
Dome of the Pantheon, inner view
Palladian Stowe House, by William Kent
Frigidarium of Baths of Diocletian, today Santa Maria degli Angeli
Close-up view of the wall of the Roman shore fort at Burgh Castle, Norfolk, showing alternating courses of flint and brickwork.
The St. George Rotunda (4th century) and remains of Serdica, Sofia, Bulgaria
Example of opus caementicium on a tomb on the ancient Appian Way in Rome. The original covering has been removed.
The Temple of Claudius to the south (left) of the Colosseum (model of Imperial Rome at the Museo della civiltà romana in Rome)
Model of the 1st century Philippopolis (Plovdiv, Bulgaria) in the Roman period created by arch. Matey Mateev
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii, built around 70 BC and buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 79 AD, once hosted spectacles with gladiators
Northern aisle of the Basilica of Maxentius in Rome
The Aula Palatina of Trier, Germany (then part of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica), built during the reign of Constantine I (r. 306–337 AD)
The Roman Forum
The Horrea Epagathiana et Epaphroditiana, a horreum in Ostia (Rome), Italy, built c. 145–150 AD
Insula in Ostia Antica
The Tower of Hercules, a Roman lighthouse in Spain
"Roman Baroque" Temple of Bacchus at Baalbek, Lebanon
The Temple of Hercules Victor, Rome, built in the mid-2nd century BC, most likely by Lucius Mummius Achaicus, who won the Achaean War.
The Temple of Portunus, god of grain storage, keys, livestock and ports. Rome, built between 120 and 80 BC
Roman Theatre (Mérida), Spain
Villa of the Mysteries just outside Pompeii, seen from above
The capital of Trajan's Column, Rome
Gardens in Conimbriga, Portugal
The Arch of Titus in Rome, an early Roman imperial triumphal arch with a single archway
The Arch of Augustus in Rimini (Ariminum), dedicated to Augustus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC, the oldest surviving Roman triumphal arch
The Appian way
The Pont du Gard, near Vers-Pont-du-Gard, France
Puente Romano over the Guadiana River at Mérida, Spain
The Basilica Cistern in Constantinople provided water for the Imperial Palace.
Roman walls of Lugo, Spain
The Centaur mosaic (2nd-century), found at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli, Italy. Altes Museum, Berlin
Hypocaust in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, France
Inside the "Temple of Mercury" at Baiae, a swimming pool for a Roman bath, dating to the late Roman Republic, and containing one of the largest domes in the world before the building of the Pantheon
The Baths of Caracalla
Canopo at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy
Verona Arena at dawn
Hadrian's Wall, built in 122 AD in Roman Britain, in what is now Northern England

It used new materials, particularly Roman concrete, and newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make buildings that were typically strong and well-engineered.

Stress (mechanics)

Physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.

Residual stresses inside a plastic protractor are revealed by the polarized light.
Roman-era bridge in Switzerland
Inca bridge on the Apurimac River
The stress across a surface element (yellow disk) is the force that the material on one side (top ball) exerts on the material on the other side (bottom ball), divided by the area of the surface.
Glass vase with the craquelé effect. The cracks are the result of brief but intense stress created when the semi-molten piece is briefly dipped in water.
Idealized stress in a straight bar with uniform cross-section.
Shear stress in a horizontal bar loaded by two offset blocks.
Isotropic tensile stress. Top left: Each face of a cube of homogeneous material is pulled by a force with magnitude F, applied evenly over the entire face whose area is A. The force across any section S of the cube must balance the forces applied below the section. In the three sections shown, the forces are F (top right), F, respectively. So the stress across S is F/A in all three cases.
Components of stress in three dimensions
Illustration of typical stresses (arrows) across various surface elements on the boundary of a particle (sphere), in a homogeneous material under uniform (but not isotropic) triaxial stress. The normal stresses on the principal axes are +5, +2, and −3 units.
A tank car made from bent and welded steel plates.
For stress modeling, a fishing pole may be considered one-dimensional.
Toughened glass of car rear window. Variations in glass stress are clearly seen when photographed through a polarizing filter
 (bottom picture).
Simplified model of a truss for stress analysis, assuming unidimensional elements under uniform axial tension or compression.

Over several millennia, architects and builders in particular, learned how to put together carefully shaped wood beams and stone blocks to withstand, transmit, and distribute stress in the most effective manner, with ingenious devices such as the capitals, arches, cupolas, trusses and the flying buttresses of Gothic cathedrals.

Parabolic arch

Celler Modernista, Sant Cugat Museum
Former main post office, Utrecht
The Bixby Creek Bridge's parabolic arch
Garabit viaduct, France
Parabola (red) graphed against a catenary (blue), view to simulate an arch.
Parabola (red) graphed against a catenary (blue), view to simulate an arch. Zoomed out.

A parabolic arch is an arch in the shape of a parabola.