Archaeology

archaeologistarchaeologicalarchaeologistsarcheologyarcheologicalarcheologistarcheologistsarchaeological sitearchaeologicallyarchaeological research
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.wikipedia
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Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.
The disciplines include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, folkloristics, history, musicology, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
In Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines, while in North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology. It draws upon anthropology, history, art history, classics, ethnology, geography, geology, literary history, linguistics, semiology, sociology, textual criticism, physics, information sciences, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleography, paleontology, paleozoology, and paleobotany.
Archaeology, which studies human activity through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history.

Artifact (archaeology)

artifactsartifactartefacts
The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes.
In archaeology, however, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as: an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may be a cultural artifact having cultural interest.

Biofact (archaeology)

ecofactbiofactecofacts
The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes.
In archaeology, a biofact (or ecofact) is organic material found at an archaeological site that carries archaeological significance.

Stone tool

stone toolslithicstone axe
Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades.
Archaeologists often study such prehistoric societies, and refer to the study of stone tools as lithic analysis.

Excavation (archaeology)

excavationexcavationsexcavated
The discipline involves surveying, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.

Material culture

materialmaterial culture studiesTangible folk art
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
It draws on both theory and practice from the social sciences and humanities such as art history, archaeology, anthropology, history, historic preservation, folklore, archival science, literary criticism and museum studies, among others.

Archaeological record

Archaeological evidencefindsarchaeological excavations
The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes.
It is one of the core concepts in archaeology, the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the archaeological record.

Survey (archaeology)

archaeological surveyarchaeological field surveyfield survey
The discipline involves surveying, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past.
In archaeology, survey or field survey is a type of field research by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of past human cultures across a large area (e.g. typically in excess of one hectare, and often in excess of many km 2 ).

Humanities

Humanitythe humanitieshumanistic
Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.
Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, and cultural anthropology.

Analysis

analysesanalyzinganalytical
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Chemists can use isotope analysis to assist analysts with issues in anthropology, archeology, food chemistry, forensics, geology, and a host of other questions of physical science.

Pseudoarchaeology

pseudoarchaeologicalalternative archaeologypseudo-archaeology
Nonetheless, today, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, and opposition to the excavation of human remains.
Pseudoarchaeology—also known as alternative archaeology, fringe archaeology, fantastic archaeology, or cult archaeology—refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the archaeological science community, which reject the accepted datagathering and analytical methods of the discipline.

Prehistory

prehistoricprehistoric timesprehistorian
Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades.
The use of the geologic time scale for pre-human time periods, and of the three-age system for human prehistory, is a system that emerged during the late nineteenth century in the work of British, German and Scandinavian archeologists, antiquarians and anthropologists.

Maritime archaeology

marine archaeologymarine archaeologistmaritime archaeologist
Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, and numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation.
Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore-side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes.

Paleontology

paleontologistpalaeontologistpalaeontology
Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, which is the study of fossil remains. It draws upon anthropology, history, art history, classics, ethnology, geography, geology, literary history, linguistics, semiology, sociology, textual criticism, physics, information sciences, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleography, paleontology, paleozoology, and paleobotany.
Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of anatomically modern humans.

Antiquarian

antiquaryantiquariansantiquaries
Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, and has since become a discipline practiced across the world.
The Oxford English Dictionary first cites "archaeologist" from 1824; this soon took over as the usual term for one major branch of antiquarian activity.

Archaeoastronomy

archaeoastronomicalarchaeoastronomerarcheoastronomy
Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, and numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation.
Two hundred years before John Michell wrote the above, there were no archaeoastronomers and there were no professional archaeologists, but there were astronomers and antiquarians.

History

historical recordshistoricalhistoric
It draws upon anthropology, history, art history, classics, ethnology, geography, geology, literary history, linguistics, semiology, sociology, textual criticism, physics, information sciences, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleography, paleontology, paleozoology, and paleobotany.
Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history.

Lifeway

Lifewaysactivity fundamental to the economy and societyways of life
Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
Lifeway is a term used in the disciplines of anthropology, sociology and archeology, particularly in North America.

Stonehenge

Stone HengeStonehendgeFolklore of Stonehenge
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC.

Sir Richard Hoare, 2nd Baronet

Richard Colt HoareSir Richard Colt HoareColt Hoare
Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory".
Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 2nd Baronet FRS (9 December 1758 – 19 May 1838) was an English antiquarian, archaeologist, artist, and traveller of the 18th and 19th centuries, the first major figure in the detailed study of the history of his home county of Wiltshire.

John Aubrey

AubreyMonumenta BritannicaAubrey's Brief Lives
John Aubrey (1626–1697) was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England.
He was a pioneer archaeologist, who recorded (often for the first time) numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, and who is particularly noted as the discoverer of the Avebury henge monument.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age.
Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages (c. undefined 1200 – c. 800 BC), archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age.
According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded some time in the 8th century BC, though it may go back as far as the 10th century BC, by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill.

Stratigraphy (archaeology)

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However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked.
Stratigraphy is a key concept to modern archaeological theory and practice.