Archaeology of religion and ritual

MuslimsReligion, rituals
The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.wikipedia
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Anthropology of religion

anthropologist of religionanthropologyreligion
As in religious studies and the Anthropology of religion, many archaeologists differentiate between “world religions,” and “traditional” or “indigenous religions.” “World religions” are defined by Bowie (2000: 26) as:

Household archaeology

daily-life objectshousehold
A household can be considered as “a corporate body organized by reference to shared practices and [a] common estate.” Religion, rituals and social activities are often organized at the household level and reinforced by habitual actions through time.

Archaeology

archaeologistarchaeologicalarchaeologists
The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.

Religious studies

religionstudy of religionRS
As in religious studies and the Anthropology of religion, many archaeologists differentiate between “world religions,” and “traditional” or “indigenous religions.” “World religions” are defined by Bowie (2000: 26) as: The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.

Historical method

historical evidencehistorical researchmethodology
The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.

Ritual

ritualsreligious ritualritualistic
The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.

Aztecs

AztecAztec EmpireMexica
Religion may be defined as “a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs,” whereas ritual is “an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite.” Archaeologists may study the material traces of religious ritual (for example, the ritual destruction of ceramic vessels during the Aztec New Fire ceremony ) or the material correlates of religion as a totalized worldview (for example, Elizabeth Kyder-Reid's study of the Southern Redemptorists’ reconfiguration of landscape and artifacts to reflect their ideals of community and poverty in material form ).

New Fire ceremony

new fire52-year renewal ceremonyBinding of the Years
Religion may be defined as “a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs,” whereas ritual is “an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite.” Archaeologists may study the material traces of religious ritual (for example, the ritual destruction of ceramic vessels during the Aztec New Fire ceremony ) or the material correlates of religion as a totalized worldview (for example, Elizabeth Kyder-Reid's study of the Southern Redemptorists’ reconfiguration of landscape and artifacts to reflect their ideals of community and poverty in material form ).

Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer

C.Ss.R.RedemptoristRedemptorists
Religion may be defined as “a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs,” whereas ritual is “an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite.” Archaeologists may study the material traces of religious ritual (for example, the ritual destruction of ceramic vessels during the Aztec New Fire ceremony ) or the material correlates of religion as a totalized worldview (for example, Elizabeth Kyder-Reid's study of the Southern Redemptorists’ reconfiguration of landscape and artifacts to reflect their ideals of community and poverty in material form ).

World religions

world religionreligious traditionsfaith groups
As in religious studies and the Anthropology of religion, many archaeologists differentiate between “world religions,” and “traditional” or “indigenous religions.” “World religions” are defined by Bowie (2000: 26) as:

Indigenous religion

indigenous religionsindigenousIndigenous beliefs
As in religious studies and the Anthropology of religion, many archaeologists differentiate between “world religions,” and “traditional” or “indigenous religions.” “World religions” are defined by Bowie (2000: 26) as:

Neoevolutionism

neo-evolutionaryneo-evolutionismNeoevolutionists
However, Timothy Insoll (2004: 9) has argued that these categorizations arise from a much-critiqued neo-evolutionary perspective.

Household

householdshead of the householddomestic life
Strict dichotomies of religious forms may also contribute to skewing research toward state religions, leaving household religious practice, and the relationships between these, under-investigated (a trend noted by Elson and Smith, 2001 ).

Magic (supernatural)

magicsorcerymagical
The archaeology of religion also incorporates related anthropological or religious concepts and terms such as magic, tradition, symbolism, and the sacred.

Tradition

traditionaltraditionscustom
The archaeology of religion also incorporates related anthropological or religious concepts and terms such as magic, tradition, symbolism, and the sacred.

Religious symbol

religious symbolismreligious symbolssymbolism
The archaeology of religion also incorporates related anthropological or religious concepts and terms such as magic, tradition, symbolism, and the sacred.

Sacred

holyholinesssanctity
The archaeology of religion also incorporates related anthropological or religious concepts and terms such as magic, tradition, symbolism, and the sacred.

Émile Durkheim

DurkheimEmile DurkheimDurkheimian
These include: Émile Durkheim’s functionalist understanding of religion as serving to separate the sacred and the profane; Karl Marx’s idea of religion as “the opium of the masses” or a false consciousness, Clifford Geertz’s loose definition of religion as a “system of symbols” that orders the world, Victor Turner’s work on ritual, including rites of passage and liminality, Max Weber’s religious types and thoughts on the relationship between economics and religion; Claude Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist understandings of totemism and myth; and Mary Douglas’ idea of the division of “purity and danger”.

Sacred–profane dichotomy

sacred and profaneSacred-profane dichotomythe sacred and the profane
These include: Émile Durkheim’s functionalist understanding of religion as serving to separate the sacred and the profane; Karl Marx’s idea of religion as “the opium of the masses” or a false consciousness, Clifford Geertz’s loose definition of religion as a “system of symbols” that orders the world, Victor Turner’s work on ritual, including rites of passage and liminality, Max Weber’s religious types and thoughts on the relationship between economics and religion; Claude Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist understandings of totemism and myth; and Mary Douglas’ idea of the division of “purity and danger”.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
These include: Émile Durkheim’s functionalist understanding of religion as serving to separate the sacred and the profane; Karl Marx’s idea of religion as “the opium of the masses” or a false consciousness, Clifford Geertz’s loose definition of religion as a “system of symbols” that orders the world, Victor Turner’s work on ritual, including rites of passage and liminality, Max Weber’s religious types and thoughts on the relationship between economics and religion; Claude Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist understandings of totemism and myth; and Mary Douglas’ idea of the division of “purity and danger”.

Opium of the people

opiate of the massesopiate of the peoplereligion is the opium of the people
These include: Émile Durkheim’s functionalist understanding of religion as serving to separate the sacred and the profane; Karl Marx’s idea of religion as “the opium of the masses” or a false consciousness, Clifford Geertz’s loose definition of religion as a “system of symbols” that orders the world, Victor Turner’s work on ritual, including rites of passage and liminality, Max Weber’s religious types and thoughts on the relationship between economics and religion; Claude Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist understandings of totemism and myth; and Mary Douglas’ idea of the division of “purity and danger”.

False consciousness

false needsconsciousnessdistract
These include: Émile Durkheim’s functionalist understanding of religion as serving to separate the sacred and the profane; Karl Marx’s idea of religion as “the opium of the masses” or a false consciousness, Clifford Geertz’s loose definition of religion as a “system of symbols” that orders the world, Victor Turner’s work on ritual, including rites of passage and liminality, Max Weber’s religious types and thoughts on the relationship between economics and religion; Claude Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist understandings of totemism and myth; and Mary Douglas’ idea of the division of “purity and danger”.

Clifford Geertz

GeertzGeertz, CliffordGEERTZ, C.
These include: Émile Durkheim’s functionalist understanding of religion as serving to separate the sacred and the profane; Karl Marx’s idea of religion as “the opium of the masses” or a false consciousness, Clifford Geertz’s loose definition of religion as a “system of symbols” that orders the world, Victor Turner’s work on ritual, including rites of passage and liminality, Max Weber’s religious types and thoughts on the relationship between economics and religion; Claude Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist understandings of totemism and myth; and Mary Douglas’ idea of the division of “purity and danger”.

Victor Turner

Victor Witter TurnerAwardThe Forest of Symbols
These include: Émile Durkheim’s functionalist understanding of religion as serving to separate the sacred and the profane; Karl Marx’s idea of religion as “the opium of the masses” or a false consciousness, Clifford Geertz’s loose definition of religion as a “system of symbols” that orders the world, Victor Turner’s work on ritual, including rites of passage and liminality, Max Weber’s religious types and thoughts on the relationship between economics and religion; Claude Lévi-Strauss’ structuralist understandings of totemism and myth; and Mary Douglas’ idea of the division of “purity and danger”.