Archaic Greece

ArchaicArchaic periodArchaic GreekLate ArchaicArchaic ageArchaic period in GreeceArchaic-periodGreekArchaic eraGreek Archaic
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.wikipedia
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History of Greece

Greek historyGreekhistory
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.

Greek alphabet

GreekGreek lettersGreek letter
It was in the archaic period that the Greek alphabet developed, the earliest surviving Greek literature was composed, monumental sculpture and red-figure pottery began in Greece and the hoplite became the core of Greek armies.
In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many different local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Euclidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today.

Polis

poleiscity-statescity-state
It began with a "structural revolution" that "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and it ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period.
The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity.

Solon

Solon of AthensSolonianSólon
In Athens, the earliest institutions of democracy were implemented under Solon, and the reforms of Cleisthenes at the end of the archaic period brought in Athenian democracy as it was during the Classical period.
630 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.

Classical Greece

ClassicalClassical periodClassical Greek
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
The Classical period in this sense follows the Greek Dark Ages and Archaic period and is in turn succeeded by the Hellenistic period.

Greek Dark Ages

Greek Dark AgeDark AgeDark Ages
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period. During the Greek Dark Ages, following the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation, Greek pottery decoration had been based around increasingly elaborate geometrical patterns.
In Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased and the Greek alphabet would not develop until the beginning of the Archaic Period.

Smyrna

Smyrna, TurkeySmyrneSmyrni
In some settlements, this physical unification was marked by the construction of defensive city walls, as was the case in Smyrna by the middle of the eighth century BC, and Corinth by the middle of the seventh century BC.
The first site, probably founded by indigenous peoples, rose to prominence during the Archaic Period as one of the principal ancient Greek settlements in western Anatolia.

Greek colonisation

Greek coloniesGreek colonycolony
These Greek colonies were not, as Roman colonies were, dependent on their mother-city, but were independent city-states in their own right.
Greek colonisation was an organised colonial expansion by the Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea in the period of the 8th–6th centuries B.C (750 and 550 B.C)

Archilochus

ArchilochosArchilochus of Parosand other poets
The word τύραννος (tyrannos, whence the English "tyrant") first appeared in Greek literature in a poem of Archilochus, to describe the Lydian ruler Gyges.
Archilochus ( Arkhilokhos; c. 680 – c. 645 BC) was a Greek lyric poet from the island of Paros in the Archaic period.

Miletus

MilesianMiletosMilesians
The dominant coloniser in these parts was Miletus.
The Archaic Period of Greece began with a sudden and brilliant flash of art and philosophy on the coast of Anatolia.

Kouros

kouroiArchaic ''KouroiArchaic Greek statues
The best-known types of archaic sculpture are the kouros and kore, near life-size frontal statues of a young man or woman, which were developed around the middle of the seventh century BC in the Cyclades.
A kouros (, plural kouroi) is the modern term given to free-standing ancient Greek sculptures that first appear in the Archaic period in Greece and represent nude male youths.

Pottery of ancient Greece

ancient Greek potteryGreek vase paintingGreek pottery
It was the period in which monumental sculpture was introduced to Greece, and in which Greek pottery styles went through great changes, from the repeating patterns of the late geometric period to the earliest red-figure vases.
Geometric art in Greek pottery was contiguous with the late Dark Age and early Archaic Greece, which saw the rise of the Orientalizing period.

Orientalizing period

OrientalizingOrientalising periodorientalising vase painting
It was this trade network which was the source of the orientalizing influence on Greek art in the early part of the archaic period.
In the Archaic phase of ancient Greek art, the Orientalizing period (or "Orientalising") is the cultural and art historical period which started during the later part of the 8th century BC, when there was a heavy influence from the more advanced art of the Eastern Mediterranean and Ancient Near East.

Kore (sculpture)

koreKorainot women
The best-known types of archaic sculpture are the kouros and kore, near life-size frontal statues of a young man or woman, which were developed around the middle of the seventh century BC in the Cyclades.
Kore (Greek: κόρη "maiden"; plural korai) is the modern term given to a type of free-standing ancient Greek sculpture of the Archaic period depicting female figures, always of a young age.

Aegina

AiginaAeginetansEgina
The eastern trade mainly involved the Greek islands, with Aegina, for instance, acting as an intermediary between the east and the Greek mainland.
During the naval expansion of Aegina during the Archaic Period, Kydonia was an ideal maritime stop for Aegina's fleet on its way to other Mediterranean ports controlled by the emerging sea-power Aegina.

Red-figure pottery

red-figurered-figure stylered figure
It was the period in which monumental sculpture was introduced to Greece, and in which Greek pottery styles went through great changes, from the repeating patterns of the late geometric period to the earliest red-figure vases.
The generation of artists after the pioneers, active during the Late Archaic period (circa 500 to 470 BC) brought the style to a new flourish.

Gyges of Lydia

GygesGiges
The word τύραννος (tyrannos, whence the English "tyrant") first appeared in Greek literature in a poem of Archilochus, to describe the Lydian ruler Gyges.
Several monarchs of Asia Minor in the Archaic Period, at the height of the influence of the Oracle of Delphi, bolstered their claims to rule through oracles from the Pythia.

Sappho

Sappho of LesbosSapphicSapho
Sappho and Alcaeus, for instance, were from Lesbos, while Pindar came from Thebes, and Alcman from Sparta.
Sappho (Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω Psáppho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an Archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos.

White ground technique

white-groundwhite groundwhite-ground technique
The invention of the red-figure technique in Athens came at around the same time as the development of other techniques such as the white ground technique and Six's technique.
A similar slip had been used as carrier for vase paintings in the Geometric and Archaic periods.

Ionia

ancient IoniaIonicIonian
Most early inscriptions were written in verse, though some from Ionia were in prose, influenced by the prose traditions of Ionia's eastern neighbours.
Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600–480 BC), settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea.

Pindar

PindaricPindarusancient Greek poet
Sappho and Alcaeus, for instance, were from Lesbos, while Pindar came from Thebes, and Alcman from Sparta.
His poetry illustrates the beliefs and values of Archaic Greece at the dawn of the classical period.

Mycenaean Greece

MycenaeanMycenaean civilizationMycenaean period
During the Greek Dark Ages, following the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation, Greek pottery decoration had been based around increasingly elaborate geometrical patterns.
Mycenaean Greece perished with the collapse of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean, to be followed by the so-called Greek Dark Ages, a recordless transitional period leading to Archaic Greece where significant shifts occurred from palace-centralized to de-centralized forms of socio-economic organization (including the extensive use of iron).

Colossus of the Naxians

Some kouroi, such as the Colossus of the Naxians from around 600 BC, are known to represent Apollo, while the Phrasikleia Kore was meant to represent a young woman whose tomb it originally marked.
The colossus is an example of archaic monumental sculpture and dates to the end of the seventh century BC.

Ancient history

antiquityancientancient world
This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece.

Ancient Greek temple

Greek templetempletemples
The most significant change of the eighth century was the development of permanent temples as a regular feature of sanctuary sites, where in the Dark Ages there had probably been no building specifically used for cult purposes.
The Mycenaean Megaron (15th to the 13th century BCE) was the precursor for later Archaic and Classical Greek temples, but during the Greek Dark Age the buildings became smaller and less monumental.