Architecture

architecturalarchitectarchitecturallyarchitectsarchitectural designarchitectonicArchitectural Stylebuilderarchitectural featuresarchitectural firm
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "creator") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.wikipedia
5,580 Related Articles

Urban design

urban designerUrbandesign
In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of individual buildings, urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, streets and public spaces, whole neighbourhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the goal of making urban areas functional and sustainable.

De architectura

Ten Books on ArchitectureOn Architecturebooks of architecture
De architectura (On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect and military engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects.

Architect

architectsarchitectural firmmaster builder
There was still no dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the related vocations, and the appellation was often one of regional preference.
Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture.

John Ruskin

RuskinRuskinianRuskinian Gothic
The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture.
He wrote on subjects as varied as geology, architecture, myth, ornithology, literature, education, botany and political economy.

Landscape architecture

landscape architectlandscape gardenerlandscape gardening
Urban design is an inter-disciplinary field that utilizes elements of many built environment professions, including landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, civil engineering and municipal engineering.
Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of botany, horticulture, the fine arts, architecture, industrial design, soil sciences, environmental psychology, geography, ecology, and civil engineering.

Building

buildingsedificepublic buildings
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "creator") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art.
Sturgis' Dictionary included that "[building] differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; and it differs from construction in the idea of excluding scientific or highly skilful treatment."

Construction

construction industrybuilding constructionconstruction site
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "creator") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
There are also categories for construction service firms (e.g., engineering, architecture) and construction managers (firms engaged in managing construction projects without assuming direct financial responsibility for completion of the construction project).

Sustainable architecture

green architecturesustainablesustainability
In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture.
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large.

Work of art

artworkworks of artoeuvre
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art.
The products of environmental design, depending on intention and execution, can be "works of art" and include: land art, site-specific art, architecture, gardens, landscape architecture, installation art, rock art, and megalithic monuments.

Building material

building materialsbuilding productsmaterials
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills).
They provide the make-up of and structures including homes.

Golden ratio

golden sectiongolden meanφ
He saw this system as a continuation of the long tradition of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man", the work of Leon Battista Alberti, and others who used the proportions of the human body to improve the appearance and function of architecture.

Classical order

classical ordersordersarchitectural order
Architectural "style" developed in the form of the Classical orders.
An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform.

Engineer

engineersconsulting engineerIr.
There was still no dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the related vocations, and the appellation was often one of regional preference.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, design, analyze, build and test machines, complex systems, structures and materials to fulfil functional objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety and cost.

Bauhaus

Bauhaus schoolBauhaus DessauThe Bauhaus
Following this lead, the Bauhaus school, founded in Weimar, Germany in 1919, redefined the architectural bounds prior set throughout history, viewing the creation of a building as the ultimate synthesis—the apex—of art, craft, and technology.
The German term Bauhaus—literally "building house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not initially have an architecture department.

Organic architecture

organicorganic" architectureOrganicism
Architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright developed organic architecture, in which the form was defined by its environment and purpose, with an aim to promote harmony between human habitation and the natural world with prime examples being Robie House and Fallingwater.
Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world.

Postmodernism

postmodernpost-modernpostmodernist
While it is considered by some to be merely an aspect of postmodernism, others consider it to be a school in its own right and a later development of expressionist architecture.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism, marking a departure from modernism.

Phenomenology (architecture)

phenomenologyarchitectural phenomenologyphenomenological
Beginning in the late 1950s and 1960s, architectural phenomenology emerged as an important movement in the early reaction against modernism, with architects like Charles Moore in the United States, Christian Norberg-Schulz in Norway, and Ernesto Nathan Rogers and Vittorio Gregotti, Michele Valori, Bruno Zevi in Italy, who collectively popularized an interest in a new contemporary architecture aimed at expanding human experience using historical buildings as models and precedents.
Phenomenology in architecture can be understood as a discursive and realist attempt to understand and embody the philosophical insights of phenomenology.

De re aedificatoria

De re ædificatoriaOn architecturethe 1450 architectural treatise
In his discussion, Alberti includes a wide variety of literary sources, including Plato and Aristotle, presenting a concise version of the sociology of architecture.

Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnian architecturearchitecturalarchitecture
In the 21st century, the only significant architectural heritage on European soil outside of modern-day Turkey, can be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Albania, while some remnants can be found in the Muslim-inhabited parts of Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Bulgaria.
Architecture however was organized around a set of unwritten architectural laws including: human scale, unobstructed views, geometry, open and flexible spaces, simple furniture, spatial links to nature and use of local materials and traditional building techniques.

New Urbanism

New UrbanistCongress for the New UrbanismCongress for New Urbanism
Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism, metaphoric architecture and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design.
New Urbanists support: regional planning for open space; context-appropriate architecture and planning; adequate provision of infrastructure such as sporting facilities, libraries and community centres; and the balanced development of jobs and housing.

Classical architecture

ClassicalClassicismClassical style
Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism, metaphoric architecture and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius.

The Seven Lamps of Architecture

Seven Lamps of Architecture
The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture.

Urban area

Urbanurban agglomerationagglomeration
Due to a surplus in production the economy began to expand resulting in urbanization thus creating urban areas which grew and evolved very rapidly in some cases, such as that of Çatal Höyük in Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in modern-day Pakistan.

Sustainable design

green designsustainablesustainable technology
There has been an acceleration in the number of buildings which seek to meet green building sustainable design principles.
It is a philosophy that can be applied in the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, urban planning, engineering, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, fashion design and human-computer interaction.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
The architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such as the Greek and the Roman evolved from civic ideals rather than religious or empirical ones and new building types emerged.
Respect for the ancients of Greece and Rome affected politics, philosophy, sculpture, literature, theatre, education, and even architecture and sexuality.