Architecture of India

Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the early 6th century, near the end of the Gupta period.
The rock-cut Shore Temple of the temples in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, 700–728. Showing the typical dravida form of tower.
Hindu Temple basic floor design
The ninth century temple in Barakar shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.
Drawing of a pancharatha (5 ratha) plan of subsidiary shrines of Brahmeswara Temple
Palitana Jain Temples
Jain Temple complex, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, before 862
Temple ceiling of Ranakpur Jain Temple, Rajasthan
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, Lodi Gardens
Qutb complex
Burial place of Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Tombs beside Tomb of Fatima Khanam
Firoze Minar at Gaur
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Jama Masjid, Srinagar
The Golden Temple in Amritsar
Gurdwara Baba Atal is a 17th-century nine-storeyed Gurudwara in Amritsar
Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune.
Kee monastery, Spiti
Cluster of temples in Bishnupur
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari at Khanyan
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Lotus Temple, Delhi Fariborz Sahba
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Bimbisara visiting a bamboo garden in Rajagriha
Pari Mahal
Pointed arch, Mahabodhi temple, 6th–7th century CE, Late-Gupta period
Arches of Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi
Nav Toran Temple, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh
Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang
Angkor Wat
Wat Chaiwatthanaram, an example of Thai style prang
Masjid Ubudiah, showcasing elements of Indo-Saracenic style
Temples in Bagan
Ananda Temple terracotta plaque glazed in green
numerous rock-cut equivalents
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The Hindu Tigawa Temple, early 5th century.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Vishnu temple in Eran, 5th-6th century
The Buddhagupta pillar at Eran (c.476–495 CE)
Detailed carving of elephant, Ranakpur Jain Temple
Rani Ki Vav, Gujrat
Somanath Temple
Adalaj stepwell
Taranga Jain Temple, Gujrat
Safdarjung's Tomb is built in the late Mughal style for Nawab Safdarjung. The tomb is described as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture”
Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in Agra.It is noticeable for the first use of pietra dura technique. The tomb is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.
Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture.
Akbar's Tomb, Agra. Built with red sandstone by his son and grandson in 1605 to 1618.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|title=Humayun's Tomb, Delhi|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228192141/https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|archive-date=2019-02-28|url-status=live|access-date=2019-02-28}}</ref>
Stupas in Thikse Monastery
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Monastery assembly hall
Prayer hall at the Golden Temple in Bylakuppe, a Tibetan settlement in Karnataka
The Chandannagar Strand Ghat, reminiscences of a French colony, Chandannagar, West Bengal
Fort Dansborg, built by the 17th century Danish admiral Ove Gjedde, reminiscences of Danish India, Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu
Tomb of Susanna Anna Maria, reminisces of Dutch India, Chinsurah, West Bengal
Church Of St Francis Of Assisi, reminisce of Portuguese India, Goa
French Quarter, Pondicherry. The city became the chief French settlement in India.
Nishat Bagh, Srinagar
Lal Bagh, Bengaluru
View of the Mughal Garden of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Waterfall at Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Char Bagh Garden, Rajasthan
The Athpula (eight piers) bridge in Lodi gardens

Rooted in its history, culture and religion.

- Architecture of India
Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha

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Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (built 1320 to 1324) in Multan, Pakistan

Indo-Islamic architecture

Architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes.

Architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes.

Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (built 1320 to 1324) in Multan, Pakistan
The Buland Darwaza gateway to Fatehpur Sikri, built by Akbar in 1601
The Qutb Minar (left, begun c. 1200) next to the Alai Darwaza gatehouse (1311); Qutb Complex in Delhi
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, with corbel arches
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (d. 1325), Delhi
Arches in the main mosque at Gulbarga, 1367
Choto Sona Mosque (around 1500)
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Kevada Mosque, Champaner
Aali Masjid in Srinagar, Kashmir.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569-70
King's Gate at Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra
The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, widely considered the pinnacle of Islamic architecture in the subcontinent.
The Rumi Darwaza in Lucknow, 1784, from the rear, during flooding.
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque, Ajmer, c. 1229; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Possibly the first "true" arches in India; Tomb of Balban (d. 1287) in Delhi
Pavilions in the Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
Tomb of Sikander Lodi in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Mahmud Gawan Madrasa (begun construction in the 1460s).
Jama Mosque Gulbarga (b. 1367), pictured in 1880.
"Double" tomb of Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah (d. 1422), in Gulbarga
A row of Bahminid tombs at Ashtur, Bidar
Gol Gumbaz built by the Bijapur Sultanate in Deccani style, the world's 2nd largest pre-modern dome following the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.
Charminar at the Old City in Hyderabad, 1591
Makkah Masjid, Hyderabad
Char Kaman in Hyderabad
Hayat Bakshi Mosque in Hyderabad
Khairtabad Mosque
Shat Gombuj (Sixty Dome) Mosque in Bagerhat, Bangladesh
Interior of the Shat Gambuj Mosque
Ruined mihrabs and arabesque inside Darasbari Mosque, 15th-century
Terracotta arabesque on the wall of Khania Dighi Mosque, Gauda, 15th-century
Multi-domed Pathrail Mosque, 15th-century
Single-domed Eklakhi Mausoleum, early 15th-century
Firoz Minar, Gauda, 1480s
Corner tower with arabesque on Choto Sona Mosque, late 15th and early 16th centuries
Dakhil Doorway, Gauda, 16th-century
Jama Mosque, Champaner
Jama Mosque, Ahmedabad (the upper parts of the minarets at the entrance now lost).
Teen Darwaza (Three-Gate) entrance to Ahmedabad
Sarkhej Roza complex, Ahmedabad
alt=Sidi Bashir Mosque|Sidi Bashir Mosque, Ahmedabad
Jali at the Sidi Sayyid Mosque
Bhadra Fort, Ahmedabad
Dada Harir Stepwell, Ahmedabad
Interior of Jami Mosque, Khambhat
Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, Kashmir.
Interior of the Jamia Masjid.
Khanqah-e-Moula in Srinagar, Kashmir
Tomb of Zain-ul-Abedin's mother in Srinagar, Kashmir.
Chaqchan Mosque in Khaplu, Gilgit-Baltistan
Amburiq Mosque in Gilgit-Baltistan.
The use of elephant-shaped column brackets in buildings of the Lahore Fort reflects Hindu influences on Mughal Architecture during the reign of Akbar.
The Darwaza-i-Rauza (Great Gate) of the Taj Mahal.
Jama Masjid, Delhi, one of the largest mosques in India.
Lahori Gate of the Red Fort, Delhi, India.
Tomb of Nithar Begum at Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, India.
Akbar's Tomb at Agra, India uses red sandstone and white marble, like many of the Mughal monuments. The Taj Mahal is a notable exception, as it uses only marble.
Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb located in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India, which was built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's son Azam Shah in the memory of his mother.
Badshahi mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, late Mughal, built 1673–1674.
One of the Tombs of Ustad-Shagird, Nakodar, India.
Shalimar Garden in Lahore, Pakistan

Indo-Islamic architecture has left a large impact on modern Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi architecture, as in the case of its influence on the Indo-Saracenic Revivalism of the late British Raj.

Sanchi

Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Plan of the monuments of the hill of Sanchi, numbered 1 to 50.
The Ashoka pillar at Sanchi.
The capital of the Sanchi pillar of Ashoka, as discovered (left), and simulation of original appearance (right). It is very similar to the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, except for the abacus, here adorned with flame palmettes and facing geese, 250 BCE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
by later illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs
The Great Stupa under the Sungas. The Sungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE, Stupa No2.
Sunga period railings were initially blank (left: Great Stupa), and only started to be decorated circa 115 BCE with Stupa No.2 (right).
Sunga pillar No25 with own capital on the side.
Siri-Satakani inscription
Cave No.19
The Worship of the Bodhisattva's hair
Vedisakehi damtakārehi rupakammam katam
The Great Stupa at the time of the Satavahanas.
Temptation of the Buddha, with the Buddha on the left (symbolized by his throne only) surrounded by rejoicing devotees, Mara and his daughters (center), and the demons of Mara fleeing (right).
War over the Buddha's Relics, kept by the city of Kushinagar, South Gate, Stupa no.1, Sanchi.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but he failed, the Nagas being too powerful. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Southern Gateway, Sanchi.
Ashoka in grief, supported by his two queens, in a relief at Sanchi. Stupa 1, Southern gateway. The identification with Ashoka is confirm by a similar relief from Kanaganahalli inscribed "Raya Asoko".
Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
Temple for the Bodhi Tree (Eastern Gateway).
foreigners illustrated at Sanchi worshiping the Great Stupa
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Another one
Miracle at Kapilavastu
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the river Nairanjana
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu
"The promenade of the Buddha", or Chankrama, used to depict the Buddha in motion in Buddhist aniconism.
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Foreigners making a dedication at the Southern Gateway of Stupa No 1
Stupas and monasteries at Sanchi in the early centuries of the current era. Reconstruction, 1900
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
Temple 17: a Gupta period tetrastyle prostyle temple of Classical appearance. 5th century CE
Statue of Padmapani (5th c.or 9th c.) Victoria and Albert Museum.
Pillar 26: one of the two four-lions stambha capitals at Sanchi, with lions, central flame palmette and Wheel of Law (axis, stubs of the spokes and part of the circumference only), initially located at the Northern Gateway of the Great Stupa. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Pillar 26: lion pillar capital at time of discovery, with Dharmachakra wheel (reconstitution). Northern Gateway.
this image
Pillar 35 column stump (right), and bell capital with abacus, positioned upside down.
Vajrapani statue of pillar 35, 5th c. CE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Temple 18 at Sanchi, an apsidal hall with Maurya foundations, rebuilt at the time of Harsha (7th century CE).
Temple 45
The Great Stupa as breached by Sir Herbert Maddock in 1822. Watercolor by Frederick Charles Maisey, in 1851.
Ruins of the Southern Gateway, Sanchi in 1875.
A Gate to the Stupa of Sanchi 1932
Chetiyagiri Vihara
Inscribed panel from Sanchi in Brahmi script in the British Museum
The last two letters to the right of this inscription in Brahmi form the word "dǎnam" (donation). This hypothesis permitted the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
General view of the Stupas at Sanchi by F.C. Maisey, 1851 (The Great Stupa on top of the hill, and Stupa 2 at the forefront)
The Great Stupa (Stupa No.1), started in the 3rd century BCE
Stupa No.2
Stupa No.3
Buddhist Temple, No.17
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway), with its Edict.
Sanchi Minor Pillar Edict of Ashoka, in-situ (detail of the previous image).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Side view of the capital. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.<ref name="p.25-28 Ashoka pillar"/>
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Flame palmette.
Flame palmette and lotus.
Peacock.
Woman riding a Centaur.
Lotus.
Half lotus.
Lion.
Elephant.
Elephant with branch.
Floral motif.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin with Brahmi script inscription.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within beads and reels motif.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p. 82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Detail of the foreigners, in Greek dress and playing carnyxes and aolus flute. Northern Gateway of Stupa I (detail).
Foreigners holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.<ref>"The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p. 112 Note 91</ref>
Foreigners riding horses.
Foreign heroe fighting a Makara
Foreigners on horses, wearing headbands, caps and boots. Western gate of Stupa 1.
Hero with headband wrestling a Makara.
Indians riding horses.
Indians riding bulls.
Indians riding bulls.
Queen Maya lustrated by Elephants.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Bodhi Tree.
Winged lion.
Winged lions.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Stupa representing a Buddha.
Lakshmi lustrated by Elephants.
Men on lions.
Men on lions.
2nd panel
3rd panel
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
Second panel
Possibly demons, or the attack of Mara.
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
2nd panel
3rd panel
A Seated Buddha statue (Gupta temple).
Buddha Statue (Great Stupa).
Seated Buddha (Great Stupa).
Pillar 34 with lion.<ref>Marshall p. 52 Pillar 34</ref>
The winged lion capital of pillar 34 (lost).
Great Stupa, Eastern Gateway, in 1875.
West Gateway in 1882.
South Gateway in 1882.
Great Stupa, Northern Gateway in 1861.
Temple 18 in 1861.
A vision of ancient Indian court life, using motifs from Sanchi (wood engraving, 1878).

The Great Stupa at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures in India, and an important monument of Indian Architecture.

Cave 12, Ellora, a late multi-story rock-cut vihara. Further decoration of the pillars was probably intended.

Vihāra

Vihāra generally refers to a Buddhist monastery for Buddhist renunciates, mostly in the Indian subcontinent.

Vihāra generally refers to a Buddhist monastery for Buddhist renunciates, mostly in the Indian subcontinent.

Cave 12, Ellora, a late multi-story rock-cut vihara. Further decoration of the pillars was probably intended.
Plan of cave 1 at Ajanta, a large vihara hall for prayer and living, 5th century
Cave 12, Ajanta Caves, cell entries off a vihara hall
Mahabodhi Temple in India.
Viharas found at Thotlakonda
The ruins of Shalvan Vihara, the Buddhist monastery that operated between 7th-12th century in what is now Mainamati, Bangladesh.
Vihara, locally called wihan, of Wat Chedi Luang in Northern Thailand
Cave 4, Ajanta Caves
Entrance to a vihara hall at Kanheri Caves
Wall carvings at Kanheri Caves
Simple slab abode beds in vihara at Kanheri Caves
Doorways of a Vihara, Bedse Caves

Vihara or vihara hall has a more specific meaning in the architecture of India, especially ancient Indian rock-cut architecture.

The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,

Mughal architecture

Type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.

Type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.

The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,
Badshahi Mosque, in Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is the last of the imperial mosques built by the Mughals
The Alamgiri Gate at Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan, was named for Aurangzeb, who was sometimes referred to as "Alamgir".
Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, which was built by Aurangzeb in the memory of his wife, Dilras Banu Begum
The use of elephant-shaped column brackets at Lahore Fort reflects Hindu influences on Mughal Architecture during the reign of Akbar
Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Islamia White Mosque
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, India
Buland Darwaza, Agra was built by Akbar the Great to commemorate his victory.
The tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti is considered to be one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture
Begum Shahi Mosque is Lahore's earliest dated Mughal period mosque
The tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is often regarded as a draft of the Tāj Mahal.
The Tomb of Jahangir at Lahore does not have a dome as Jahangir forbade construction of a dome over his tomb.
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque
The Shalimar Gardens, Lahore are among the most famous Mughal gardens.
The mosque's tile work exhibits Timurid influences introduced during Shah Jahan's campaigns in Central Asia.
The central chamber of the Shahi Hammam is decorated with frescoes
Badshahi Masjid, Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is now the second-largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.
Lalbagh Fort in Dhaka is an incomplete fort built by Prince Azam Shah
The 18th-century Sunehri Mosque is named for its gilded domes.
The Darwaza-i-Rauza (Great Gate) of the Taj Mahal.
Jali decorative work at the Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri.
Lahori Gate of the Red Fort, Delhi, India.
Jahangir's grave at the Tomb of Jahangir, decorated with parchin kari work.
Tomb of Nithar Begum at Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, India.
The shahada in Arabic calligraphy at the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan.
Akbar's Tomb at Agra, India uses red sandstone and white marble, like many of the Mughal monuments. The Taj Mahal is a notable exception, as it uses only marble.
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of private audience) at Lahore Fort.
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan. The mosque is not built in the Mughal style, but reflects a heavy Persian influence.
One of the Tombs of Ustad-Shagird, Nakodar, India.

It also further incorporated and syncretized influences from wider Indian architecture, especially during the reign of Akbar (r.

A Hindu wedding ritual in progress. The bride and the groom are seated together, receiving instructions from the priest. The sacred square fire container (yajna kund) is behind the priest.

Culture of India

Heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the ethno-linguistically diverse Republic of India.

Heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the ethno-linguistically diverse Republic of India.

A Hindu wedding ritual in progress. The bride and the groom are seated together, receiving instructions from the priest. The sacred square fire container (yajna kund) is behind the priest.
Rangoli artwork is usually made during Diwali or Tihar, Onam, Pongal and other Hindu festivals in the Indian subcontinent.
Pressing hands together with a smile to greet Namaste – a common cultural practice in India.
A typical varieties of North Indian dishes in a restaurant
Some Indian confectionery desserts from hundreds of varieties. In certain parts of India, these are called mithai or sweets. Sugar and desserts have a long history in India: by about 500 BCE, people in India had developed the technology to produce sugar crystals. In the local language, these crystals were called khanda (खण्ड), which is the source of the word candy.
Chicken tikka masala is an Indian dish which became the national dish of The United Kingdom. It was made popular by Indian Immigrants living in Britain.
a typical Kerala Sadya on plaintain leaf
Hyderabadi biryani
Dance in India includes classical (above), semiclassical, folk and tribal.
Mohiniyattam at Kannur district school kalothsavam 2019
Bhangra dancers in Punjab, India
Tribal Gondi Karma Naach, Chhattisgarh.
Cham dance during Dosmoche festival in Leh Palace
Group of Dharohar folk musicians performing in Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur, India
Bollywood actors at International Indian Film Academy Awards, Toronto 2011
An Ao Naga girl in her traditional attire in Nagaland, Northeast India.
Khasi women in Shad suk Mynsiem festival, Meghalaya
Shy smile of a bride in a Hindu Indian wedding
Indian bride on her wedding day
Homes, buildings and temples are decorated with festive lights, diya, for Diwali, the festival of lights.<ref>Diwali 2013: Hindu Festival Of Lights Celebrated All Over The World Nadine DeNinno, International Business Times (November 02 2013)</ref>
Color drenched Gopis during the Holi celebrations in Krishna Temple, Mathura
The Navaratri festival is an occasion of classical and folk dance performances at Hindu temples. Pictured is the Ambaji Temple of Gujarat.
The Bihu festival is an Assamese tradition; it coincides with Vaisakhi in north India, which is observed by Sikhs and Hindus.
Procession of the famous “Lalbaug cha Raja” Ganesha idol during the Ganesh Chaturthi festival in Mumbai, Maharashtra
The annual Snake boat race is performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta.
Dahi Handi, a Krishna Janmashtami festive tradition, in progress near Adi Shankaracharya Road, Mumbai, India
Durga Puja is a multi-day festival in Eastern India that features elaborate temple and stage decorations (pandals), scripture recitation, performance arts, revelry, and processions.{{sfn|James G. Lochtefeld|2002|p=208}}
The Hornbill Festival, Kohima, Nagaland. The festival involves colourful performances, crafts, sports, food fairs, games and ceremonies.<ref>{{cite news|title=Nagaland's Hornbill Festival|url=http://www.uniindia.com/~/nagaland-hornbill-festival-held-international-strongest-and-fittest-men/States/news/1429681.html|access-date=9 December 2018}}</ref>
Meitei women in boat race Hiyang Tannaba festival, Manipur
Muslims offering Namaz on the occasion of Eid-ul-Fitr, at Jama Masjid Delhi
Carnival in Goa or Viva Carnival is a Celebration prior to fasting season of Lent. It refers to the festival of carnival, or Mardi Gras, in the Indian state of Goa.
thumb|Gommateshwara statue during the Grand Consecration Mahamastakabhisheka in August 2018 at Shravanabelagola, Karnataka. Mahamastakabhisheka is held every 12 years and it is considered Jainism's one of the most auspicious festival or celebration.
Illustration of different styles of sari, gagra choli and shalwar kameez worn by women in India
The Didarganj Yakshi depicting the dhoti wrap
Achkan sherwani and churidar (lower body) worn by Arvind Singh Mewar and his kin during a Hindu wedding in Rajasthan, India
An Assamese girl wearing mekhela sador, 2010 and bindi on the centre of her forehead.
Indian actress Pakhi Hegde wearing a string-sleeve choli and sari
Indian actress Shriya Saran in woman's kameez with dupatta draped over the neck and decorative bindi on the centre of her forehead
Indian actress Priyanka Chopra wearing a lehenga and gagra choli, exposing the midriff and navel, which has long been a fashion with Indian women in popular culture<ref name="Mukulika">Banerjee, Mukulika & Miller, Daniel (2003) The Sari. Oxford; New York: Berg {{ISBN|1-85973-732-3}}</ref>
thumb|Sikh man and women wearing Turban
Traditional Hajong Pathin and Argon from Northeast India
Indian nationalist Subhas Chandra Bose wearing India's traditional costume dhuti and panjabi.
J. L. Nehru wearing Nehru jacket and Chooridar.
Maharani Gayatri Devi, in Nivi sari. The Nivi style drape was created during the colonial era of Indian history in order to create a fashion style which would conform to the Victorian-era sensibilities
thumb|right|Malayali lady wearing Mundum Neriyathum. Painted by Raja Ravi Varma, c. 1900.
Nocte Naga couple in their traditional attire
Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. After a scribal benediction ("śrīgaṇéśāyanamaḥ ;; Aum(3) ;;"), the first line has the opening words of RV.1.1.1 (agniṃ ; iḷe ; puraḥ-hitaṃ ; yajñasya ; devaṃ ; ṛtvijaṃ). The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.
Literary records suggest India had interacted in languages of other ancient civilisations. This inscription is from the Indian emperor Ashoka, carved in stone about 250 BCE, found in Afghanistan. Inscriptions are in Greek and Aramaic, with ideas of non-violence against men and all living beings, as the doctrine of Eusebeia – spiritual maturity.
A manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra, fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, recorded in the Mahābhārata
The Battle at Lanka, Ramayana by Sahibdin. It depicts the monkey army of the protagonist Rama (top left, blue figure) fighting Ravana—the demon-king of the Lanka—to save Rama's kidnapped wife, Sita. The painting depicts multiple events in the battle against the three-headed demon general Trisiras, in the bottom left. Trisiras is beheaded by Hanuman, the monkey-companion of Rama.
Rama and Hanuman fighting Ravana from Ramavataram, an album painting on paper from Tamil Nadu, c. 1820 CE
Ilango Adigal is the author of Silappatikaram, one of the five great epics of Tamil literature.<ref>{{Cite journal|title=Prince ILango Adigal, Shilappadikaram (The anklet Bracelet), translated by Alain Damelou. Review.|journal=Artibus Asiae|volume=37|issue=1/2|date=1975|pages=148–150|last=Rosen|first=Elizabeth S.|jstor=3250226|doi=10.2307/3250226}}</ref>
Krishna killing Bakasura, still of Harivamsa from Mahabharata.
Kathakali one of the classical theatre forms from Kerala, India
Rasa lila theatrical performance in Manipuri dance style
thumb|Bhavai Artist, Gujarat
Yakshagana An Ancient dance drama of Tulunadu.
thumb|Koodiyattam performer Kapila Venu
A still from play 'Nati Binodoni', Bengali Jatra Theatre. Jatra is a popular folk-theatre form of Bengali and Odia Theatre.
The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves
Painting of Radha, the companion of the Hindu god Krishna
Hindu iconography shown in Pattachitra
Raja Ravi Varma’s Shakuntala (1870); oil on canvas
Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951), a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore, and a pioneer of the Bengal School of Art
Woman riding two bulls (bronze), from Kausambi, c. 2000-1750 BCE
The 5th-century Buddhist vishvakarma cave at Ellora, Maharashtra
Marble Sculpture of female, c. 1450, Rajasthan
The Colossal trimurti at the Elephanta Caves
The iconic 57 ft high monolithic Statue of Gommateshwara, Shravanabelagola, 10th Century
Bhutesvara Yakshis, reliefs from Mathura, 2nd century CE
Intricately carved sculptures on the exterior of one of the Khajuraho Group of Monuments
The Thiruvalluvar Statue, or the Valluvar Statue, is a 133-feet (40.6 m) tall stone sculpture of the Tamil poet and philosopher Tiruvalluvar
Kailasa temple is one of the largest rock-cut ancient Hindu temples located in Ellora, Maharashtra, India.
The granite tower of Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur was completed in 1010 CE by Raja Raja Chola I.
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5889/|title=The Glorious Kakatiya Temples and Gateways|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|access-date=2019-03-23}}</ref>
Chennakesava Temple is a model example of the Hoysala architecture.
Chaturbhuj Temple at Orchha, is noted for having one of the tallest Vimana among Hindu temples standing at 344 feet. It was the tallest structure in the Indian subcontinent from 1558 CE to 1970 CE.
Considered to be an "unrivalled architectural wonder", the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. One of the world's seven wonders.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=T7ZHUhSEleYC|last = Bindloss|first = Joe|title = India|publisher = Lonely Planet|year= 2007|isbn = 978-1-74104-308-2}}</ref>
Tawang Monastery in Arunachal Pradesh, was built in the 1600s and is the largest monastery in India and second largest in the world after the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet.
Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim was built under the direction of Changchub Dorje, 12th Karmapa Lama in the mid-1700s.<ref>Achary Tsultsem Gyatso; Mullard, Saul & Tsewang Paljor (Transl.): A Short Biography of Four Tibetan Lamas and Their Activities in Sikkim, in: Bulletin of Tibetology Nr. 49, 2/2005, p. 57.</ref>
Victoria Memorial, Kolkata
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari, Khanyan
Hawa Mahal in Jaipur city, Rajasthan
Patwon ki Haveli, Jaisalmer. Rows of sandstone haveli in Rajasthan
ravidian style in form of Tamil architecture of Meenakshi Temple
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate.
Pietra Dura and Jaali works on Amer Fort Entrance, Jaipur
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE
Façade of the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai
Pachin Kari or Pietra Dura on Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah
The Stone Chariot in Hampi
Cricket was introduced to India by the British. Now it is the country's most popular sport.
Sania Mirza, a former world No. 1 in women's tennis doubles.
Kabaddi, is a contact sport that originated in ancient India. It is one of the most popular sports in India.
A scene from Raja Harishchandra (1913), the first full-length Indian motion picture
Producer-director-screenwriter Dadasaheb Phalke, the "father of Indian cinema"
A Hindu wedding ritual in progress. The bride and the groom are seated together, receiving instructions from the priest. The sacred square fire container (yajna kund) is behind the priest.
Shy smile of a bride in a Hindu Indian wedding
Koodiyattam performer Kapila Venu
The Colossal trimurti at the Elephanta Caves

India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country.

Pillars of Ashoka

The pillars of Ashoka are a series of monolithic columns dispersed throughout the Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka during his reign from c.

The pillars of Ashoka are a series of monolithic columns dispersed throughout the Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka during his reign from c.

The "Lion Capital of Ashoka", from Sarnath.
were used as funerary steles
Ashoka called his own pillars Silā Thabhe (𑀲𑀺𑀮𑀸𑀣𑀪𑁂, Stone Stambha, i.e. stone pillars). Lumbini inscription, Brahmi script.
Geographical spread of known pillar capitals.
Abacus of the Allahabad pillar of Ashoka, the only remaining portion of the capital of the Allahabad pillar.
The horse motif on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka, is often described as an example of Hellenistic realism.
The elephant-crowned pillar of Ashoka at the Mahabodhi Temple, Gaya. Bharhut relief, 100 BCE.
Ashoka also called his pillars "Dhaṃma thaṃbhā" (𑀥𑀁𑀫𑀣𑀁𑀪𑀸, Dharma stambha), i.e. "pillars of the Dharma". 7th Major Pillar Edict. Brahmi script.
Fragment of the 6th Major Pillar Edict, from the Delhi-Meerut Pillar of Ashoka, British Museum.
Vaishali lion
Depiction of the four lions capital surmounted by a Wheel of Law at Sanchi, Satavahana period, South gateway of stupa 3.
Rediscovery of the Ashoka pillar in Sarnath, 1905.
Vaishali
Lauriya-Nandangarh
Lauriya-Araraj
Delhi-Meerut (originally from Meerut, broken in pieces during transportation).
Delhi-Topra (originally from Topra Kalan).
Allahabad (originally from Kosambi)
Lumbini (broken in half). Capped for protection in the 20th century.
Sarnath
Sanchi
Rampurva
Nigali Sagar
Fragment of pillar with inscription, Amaravati.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Sircar |first1=D. C. |title=Asokan studies |date=1979 |page=118 |url=https://archive.org/stream/in.gov.ignca.67068/67068#page/n129/mode/2up}}</ref>
Kausambi
Gotihawa, possible base of the Nigali Sagar pillar
Bodh Gaya (originally near Sujata Stupa, brought from Gaya in 1956).<ref>{{cite book |last1=Geary |first1=David |title=The Rebirth of Bodh Gaya: Buddhism and the Making of a World Heritage Site |date=2017 |publisher=University of Washington Press |isbn=9780295742380 |page=209 Note 1 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=meA5DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA209 |language=en}}</ref>
Portion of an Ashokan pillar, found in Pataliputra.
Bhawanipur Rupandehi.
Sankissa elephant.
Rampurva zebu bull original (now in Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi).
Lauria Nandangarh lion.
Rampurva lion.
Four lions, once possibly crowned by a wheel, from Sanchi.
Kosambi-Allahabad Schism Edict.
Sanchi Schism Edict.
Sarnath Schism Edit.
Rummindei, in Lumbini.
Nigali Sagar.
Major Pillar Edicts I, II, III (Delhi-Topra)
Major Pillar Edicts IV (Delhi-Topra)
Major Pillar Edicts V-VII (Delhi-Topra)
Major Pillar Edicts VII, second part (Delhi-Topra)

These pillars constitute important monuments of the architecture of India, most of them exhibiting the characteristic Mauryan polish.

Jaisalmer Fort, originally including the whole city, dominating the more recent city sections below.

Architecture of Rajasthan

Jaisalmer Fort, originally including the whole city, dominating the more recent city sections below.
One of the Sahasra Bahu Temples built during the 10th century CE.
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer, by 1199
City Palace at Jaipur was designed by Vidyadhar Bhattarcharya and built between 1729 and 1732. The architecture of the palace shows clear Mughal influences on its Rajput Architecture.
Some of the Ahar Cenotaphs outside Udaipur
Mandapa ceiling in the Ranakpur Jain Temple
Remains of the Bairat stupa, 3rd century BCE
Ambika Mata temple in Jagat, Rajasthan, by 960
Ranakpur Jain temple
Dev Somnath Temple
Detailed Stone work, Karni Mata Temple, Bikaner Rajasthan
The Umaid Bhawan Palace at Jodhpur built between 1929 and 1942 is one of the largest royal palaces in the world. It was designed by Henry Vaughan Lanchester in a blend of Beaux-Arts and traditional Rajasthani styles.
Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner, designed in the Indo-Saracenic style by Samuel Swinton Jacob.
The Albert Hall Museum was designed by Samuel Swinton Jacob, and was opened as public museum in 1887.
Baroli Temples

The architecture of the Indian state of Rajasthan has usually been a regional variant of the style of Indian architecture prevailing in north India at the time.

Open mandapa at Amritapura

Mandapa

Open mandapa at Amritapura
Mandapa in Odisha with a shape like a bell Ghanta
Mandapa of the central shrine of Banteay Srei temple, Cambodia.
A Thai Buddhist Mandapa or Mondop, Wat Phra Kaew, Bangkok
Mandapa porch, Shimoga
Kambadahalli Ganga mandapa
Madapa of Thommanon temple connected its main shrine tower, facing to the east, Cambodia
Chau Say Tevoda's mandapa and main tower enclosed by its wall and 4 gopuras, Cambodia
Phanom Rung temple's prang and its mandapa, Thailand
Mandapa of Phanom Wan temple, Thailand
Mandapa and tower of Phimai temple, Thailand
Royal pendopo in Java, Indonesia, commonly found in sultans' palaces
Chyasilin Mandap in Bhaktapur, Nepal
Kasthamandap in Kathmandu, Nepal

Mandapa (also spelled mantapa or mandapam) in Indian architecture, especially Hindu temple architecture, is a pillared hall or pavilion for public rituals.

The placement of the ambulatory within a standard cathedral.

Ambulatory

Covered passage around a cloister or the processional way around the east end of a cathedral or large church and behind the high altar.

Covered passage around a cloister or the processional way around the east end of a cathedral or large church and behind the high altar.

The placement of the ambulatory within a standard cathedral.
Horton Court ambulatory, c.1527
Ambulatory of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice.

The same feature is often found in Indian architecture and Buddhist architecture generally, especially in older periods.

The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival architectural style in Peshawar, Pakistan.

Indo-Saracenic architecture

Revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.

Revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.

The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival architectural style in Peshawar, Pakistan.
The Rambagh Palace in Jaipur reflecting Imperial Rajasthani architecture. Early 20th-century.
Aitchison College in Lahore with domed chhatris, jalis, chhajja below the balcony, and other features, reflective of Rajasthani architecture.
Vidhana Soudha, Bangalore incorporates elements of Indo-Saracenic and Dravidian styles. Constructed 1951–1956.
Sultan Abdul Samad Building in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, by Arthur Benison Hubback, 1910.
General Post Office (GPO), Kolkata
Ujjayanta Palace, Agartala
Esplanade Mansion, Kolkata
Building on B.B.D. Bagh, Kolkata
Metropolitan Building Façade, Kolkata
Albert Hall Museum, Jaipur
Jenkins School, Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar Palace, West Bengal
Ubudiah Mosque (Hubback, 1913), Kuala Kangsar, Perak
Jubilee Clock Tower in George Town, Penang
National Textile Museum in Kuala Lumpur, by Hubback, 1905. Originally as offices for the Federated Malay States Railways.
The Old High Court Building in Kuala Lumpur
Old Kuala Lumpur Town Hall, Hubback, 1896-1904
Jamek Mosque in Kuala Lumpur, by Hubback
Railway Administration Building, Kuala Lumpur
Kellie's Castle, Batu Gajah, Perak
The Gateway of India
The Taj Mahal Hotel in Mumbai
Southern Railway Headquarters, Chennai
Mysore Palace
The National Art Gallery (Chennai)
Victoria Public Hall in Chennai
Senate House (University of Madras)
Mumbai GPO, reminiscent of the Gol Gumbaz
Khalsa College, Amritsar
Daly College, Indore
Chepauk Palace, Chennai
Kachiguda Railway Station, Hyderabad
Lucknow Charbagh Railway Station
Raj Bhavan (backview), Kolkata
Howrah Railway Station
Ahsan Manzil in Dhaka
Curzon Hall in Dhaka
Tajhat Palace in Rangpur
Natore Rajbari
Rose Garden Palace
Uttara Gonobhaban
Murapara Rajbari
Puthia Rajbari
Bangladesh Folk Arts and Crafts Foundation
Chittagong Court Building
Lahore Museum, Lahore
Karachi Metropolitan Corporation Building, Karachi, 1927-30
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Sadiq Dane High School, Bahawalpur
Patiala Block of King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Karachi Chamber of Commerce Building
Darbar Mahal, Bahawalpur
Multan Clock Tower, Multan
National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi
Sezincote House, Gloucestershire, 1805
Royal Pavilion in Brighton, 1815–23
Western Pavilion in Brighton, 1828, designed by Amon Henry Wilds as his own home
Elephant Tea Rooms, Sunderland, 1877
Sassoon Mausoleum, now a chic Brighton supper club, 1892
Jami Ul-Alfar Mosque in Colombo
Jaffna Public Library in Jaffna
Jaffna Clock Tower in Jaffna
Original Honkan, Tokyo National Museum, by Josiah Conder, largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1923
Palais du Bardo, parc Montsouris, Paris

By doing this they kept Indian architecture while adding elements of British and European architecture; this, coupled with the British allowing some regional Indian princes to stay in power under agreements, made their presence more "palatable" for the Indians.