Architecture of a Hindu temple (Nagara style). These core elements are evidenced in the oldest surviving 5th–6th century CE temples.
Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha
The Meenakshi temple complex of Madurai, mostly built between 1623 and 1655 CE, a large complex in the Dravidian architecture of South India, dominated by gopuram gatehouse towers. The two main shrines are much smaller, with gold tops.
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the early 6th century, near the end of the Gupta period.
A Badami Shiva temple in Karnataka.
The rock-cut Shore Temple of the temples in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, 700–728. Showing the typical dravida form of tower.
Kailasanatha temple, remarkably carved out of one single rock was built by Rashtrakuta king Krishna I (r. 756–773 CE)
Hindu Temple basic floor design
17th-century palm leaf manuscript page on temple building, Odisha.
The ninth century temple in Barakar shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.
The 8×8 (64) grid Manduka Hindu Temple Floor Plan, according to Vastupurusamandala. The 64 grid is the most sacred and common Hindu temple template. The bright saffron centre, where diagonals intersect above, represents the Purusha of Hindu philosophy.
Drawing of a pancharatha (5 ratha) plan of subsidiary shrines of Brahmeswara Temple
Palitana Jain Temples
Dashavatara temple sculpture at Deogarh, completed about 500 CE.
Jain Temple complex, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, before 862
Architecture of the Khajuraho temples
Temple ceiling of Ranakpur Jain Temple, Rajasthan
Dravidian (South Indian) Hindu Temple Architecture
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate
Navlakha Temple, Ghumli, Gujarat, 12th century
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, Lodi Gardens
Devotions in the Swaminarayan temple in Houston, Texas (2004)
Qutb complex
The profile of the 13th-century Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang includes all the buildings typical of a Cham temple. From left to right one can see the gopura, the saddle-shaped kosagrha, and mandapa attached to the kalan tower.
Burial place of Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Nashik Maharashtra temple, cross section and plan (1910 sketch)
Tombs beside Tomb of Fatima Khanam
Vrindavan Uttar Pradesh temple plan
Firoze Minar at Gaur
Khajuraho Madhya Pradesh temple plan
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Puri Odisha temple complex plan
Jama Masjid, Srinagar
Bhubneshwar Odisha, a smaller temple plan
The Golden Temple in Amritsar
Halebidu Karnataka temple plan
Gurdwara Baba Atal is a 17th-century nine-storeyed Gurudwara in Amritsar
Chidambaram Tamil Nadu temple plan
Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune.
Thiruvallur, Tamil Hindu temple complex
Kee monastery, Spiti
Mandapa of a temple in South India. Much temple sculpture was originally painted.
Cluster of temples in Bishnupur
Stepped floorplan of Dattatreya Temple (one side of the shrine) with five projections at Chattarki in Gulbarga district, 12th century CE
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari at Khanyan
Shrine wall and superstructure in Kasivisvesvara temple at Lakkundi
Ornate Gadag style pillars at Sarasvati Temple, Trikuteshwara temple complex at Gadag
Lotus Temple, Delhi Fariborz Sahba
Mahadeva Temple at Itagi, Koppal district in Karnataka, also called Devalaya Chakravarti,<ref name="deva">Cousens (1926), p. 101</ref><ref name="fine">Kamath (2001), pp. 117–118</ref> 1112 CE, an example of dravida articulation with a nagara superstructure.
Single storey gopura (Dravidian architecture)
Bimbisara visiting a bamboo garden in Rajagriha
Two storey gopura (Dravidian architecture)
Pari Mahal
Pillar elements (shared by Nagara and Dravidian)
Pointed arch, Mahabodhi temple, 6th–7th century CE, Late-Gupta period
Athisthana architectural elements of a Hindu temple
Arches of Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi
Entablature elements
Nav Toran Temple, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh
A vimana with mandapam elements (Dravidian architecture)
Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang
Angkor Wat
Wat Chaiwatthanaram, an example of Thai style prang
Masjid Ubudiah, showcasing elements of Indo-Saracenic style
Temples in Bagan
Ananda Temple terracotta plaque glazed in green
numerous rock-cut equivalents
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The Hindu Tigawa Temple, early 5th century.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Vishnu temple in Eran, 5th-6th century
The Buddhagupta pillar at Eran (c.476–495 CE)
Detailed carving of elephant, Ranakpur Jain Temple
Rani Ki Vav, Gujrat
Somanath Temple
Adalaj stepwell
Taranga Jain Temple, Gujrat
Safdarjung's Tomb is built in the late Mughal style for Nawab Safdarjung. The tomb is described as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture”
Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in Agra.It is noticeable for the first use of pietra dura technique. The tomb is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.
Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture.
Akbar's Tomb, Agra. Built with red sandstone by his son and grandson in 1605 to 1618.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Humayun's Tomb, Delhi|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|archive-url=|archive-date=2019-02-28|url-status=live|access-date=2019-02-28}}</ref>
Stupas in Thikse Monastery
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Monastery assembly hall
Prayer hall at the Golden Temple in Bylakuppe, a Tibetan settlement in Karnataka
The Chandannagar Strand Ghat, reminiscences of a French colony, Chandannagar, West Bengal
Fort Dansborg, built by the 17th century Danish admiral Ove Gjedde, reminiscences of Danish India, Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu
Tomb of Susanna Anna Maria, reminisces of Dutch India, Chinsurah, West Bengal
Church Of St Francis Of Assisi, reminisce of Portuguese India, Goa
French Quarter, Pondicherry. The city became the chief French settlement in India.
Nishat Bagh, Srinagar
Lal Bagh, Bengaluru
View of the Mughal Garden of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Waterfall at Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Char Bagh Garden, Rajasthan
The Athpula (eight piers) bridge in Lodi gardens
Pataini temple is a Jain temple built during the Gupta period, 5th century CE<ref>{{cite book | last=Cunningham | first=Alexander | author-link=Alexander Cunningham | title=Report of a Tour in the Central Provinces in 1873-74 and 1874-75 | volume=9 | series=Archaeological Survey of India | publisher=Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing | year=1879 | url={{Google books|X88OAAAAQAAJ|page=31|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} | page=31}}</ref>
Relief of Jain tirthankara Parshvanatha on the Kahaum pillar erected by Skandagupta in 461 CE

Among a number of architectural styles and traditions, the best-known include the many varieties of Hindu temple architecture, Indo-Islamic architecture, especially Mughal architecture, Rajput architecture and Indo-Saracenic architecture.

- Architecture of India

In Aihole, known as the "Cradle of Indian architecture," there are over 150 temples scattered around the village.

- Hindu temple architecture
Architecture of a Hindu temple (Nagara style). These core elements are evidenced in the oldest surviving 5th–6th century CE temples.

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Open mandapa at Amritapura


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Open mandapa at Amritapura
Mandapa in Odisha with a shape like a bell Ghanta
Mandapa of the central shrine of Banteay Srei temple, Cambodia.
A Thai Buddhist Mandapa or Mondop, Wat Phra Kaew, Bangkok
Mandapa porch, Shimoga
Kambadahalli Ganga mandapa
Madapa of Thommanon temple connected its main shrine tower, facing to the east, Cambodia
Chau Say Tevoda's mandapa and main tower enclosed by its wall and 4 gopuras, Cambodia
Phanom Rung temple's prang and its mandapa, Thailand
Mandapa of Phanom Wan temple, Thailand
Mandapa and tower of Phimai temple, Thailand
Royal pendopo in Java, Indonesia, commonly found in sultans' palaces
Chyasilin Mandap in Bhaktapur, Nepal
Kasthamandap in Kathmandu, Nepal

Mandapa (also known as mandap or mandapam) in Indian architecture, especially Hindu temple architecture, is a pillared hall or pavilion for public rituals.


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Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Plan of the monuments of the hill of Sanchi, numbered 1 to 50.
The Ashoka pillar at Sanchi.
The capital of the Sanchi pillar of Ashoka, as discovered (left), and simulation of original appearance (right). It is very similar to the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, except for the abacus, here adorned with flame palmettes and facing geese, 250 BCE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
by later illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs
The Great Stupa under the Sungas. The Sungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE, Stupa No2.
Sunga period railings were initially blank (left: Great Stupa), and only started to be decorated circa 115 BCE with Stupa No.2 (right).
Sunga pillar No25 with own capital on the side.
Siri-Satakani inscription
Cave No.19
The Worship of the Bodhisattva's hair
Vedisakehi damtakārehi rupakammam katam
The Great Stupa at the time of the Satavahanas.
Temptation of the Buddha, with the Buddha on the left (symbolized by his throne only) surrounded by rejoicing devotees, Mara and his daughters (center), and the demons of Mara fleeing (right).
War over the Buddha's Relics, kept by the city of Kushinagar, South Gate, Stupa no.1, Sanchi.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but he failed, the Nagas being too powerful. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Southern Gateway, Sanchi.
Ashoka in grief, supported by his two queens, in a relief at Sanchi. Stupa 1, Southern gateway. The identification with Ashoka is confirm by a similar relief from Kanaganahalli inscribed "Raya Asoko".
Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
Temple for the Bodhi Tree (Eastern Gateway).
foreigners illustrated at Sanchi worshiping the Great Stupa
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Another one
Miracle at Kapilavastu
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the river Nairanjana
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu
"The promenade of the Buddha", or Chankrama, used to depict the Buddha in motion in Buddhist aniconism.
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Foreigners making a dedication at the Southern Gateway of Stupa No 1
Stupas and monasteries at Sanchi in the early centuries of the current era. Reconstruction, 1900
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
Temple 17: a Gupta period tetrastyle prostyle temple of Classical appearance. 5th century CE
Statue of Padmapani (5th c.or 9th c.) Victoria and Albert Museum.
Pillar 26: one of the two four-lions stambha capitals at Sanchi, with lions, central flame palmette and Wheel of Law (axis, stubs of the spokes and part of the circumference only), initially located at the Northern Gateway of the Great Stupa. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Pillar 26: lion pillar capital at time of discovery, with Dharmachakra wheel (reconstitution). Northern Gateway.
this image
Pillar 35 column stump (right), and bell capital with abacus, positioned upside down.
Vajrapani statue of pillar 35, 5th c. CE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Temple 18 at Sanchi, an apsidal hall with Maurya foundations, rebuilt at the time of Harsha (7th century CE).
Temple 45
The Great Stupa as breached by Sir Herbert Maddock in 1822. Watercolor by Frederick Charles Maisey, in 1851.
Ruins of the Southern Gateway, Sanchi in 1875.
A Gate to the Stupa of Sanchi 1932
Chetiyagiri Vihara
Inscribed panel from Sanchi in Brahmi script in the British Museum
The last two letters to the right of this inscription in Brahmi form the word "dǎnam" (donation). This hypothesis permitted the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
General view of the Stupas at Sanchi by F.C. Maisey, 1851 (The Great Stupa on top of the hill, and Stupa 2 at the forefront)
The Great Stupa (Stupa No.1), started in the 3rd century BCE
Stupa No.2
Stupa No.3
Buddhist Temple, No.17
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway), with its Edict.
Sanchi Minor Pillar Edict of Ashoka, in-situ (detail of the previous image).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Side view of the capital. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.<ref name="p.25-28 Ashoka pillar"/>
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Flame palmette.
Flame palmette and lotus.
Woman riding a Centaur.
Half lotus.
Elephant with branch.
Floral motif.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin with Brahmi script inscription.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within beads and reels motif.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p. 82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Detail of the foreigners, in Greek dress and playing carnyxes and aolus flute. Northern Gateway of Stupa I (detail).
Foreigners holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.<ref>"The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p. 112 Note 91</ref>
Foreigners riding horses.
Foreign heroe fighting a Makara
Foreigners on horses, wearing headbands, caps and boots. Western gate of Stupa 1.
Hero with headband wrestling a Makara.
Indians riding horses.
Indians riding bulls.
Indians riding bulls.
Queen Maya lustrated by Elephants.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Bodhi Tree.
Winged lion.
Winged lions.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Stupa representing a Buddha.
Lakshmi lustrated by Elephants.
Men on lions.
Men on lions.
2nd panel
3rd panel
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
Second panel
Possibly demons, or the attack of Mara.
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
2nd panel
3rd panel
A Seated Buddha statue (Gupta temple).
Buddha Statue (Great Stupa).
Seated Buddha (Great Stupa).
Pillar 34 with lion.<ref>Marshall p. 52 Pillar 34</ref>
The winged lion capital of pillar 34 (lost).
Great Stupa, Eastern Gateway, in 1875.
West Gateway in 1882.
South Gateway in 1882.
Great Stupa, Northern Gateway in 1861.
Temple 18 in 1861.
A vision of ancient Indian court life, using motifs from Sanchi (wood engraving, 1878).

The Great Stupa at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures in India, and an important monument of Indian Architecture.

It may have been built for Buddhist use (which is not certain), but the type of which it represents a very early version was to become very significant in Hindu temple architecture.

The architecture of a Hindu temple in Sunak, Gujarat.

Hindu architecture

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Traditional system of Indian architecture for structures such as temples, monasteries, statues, homes, market places, gardens and town planning as described in Hindu texts.

Traditional system of Indian architecture for structures such as temples, monasteries, statues, homes, market places, gardens and town planning as described in Hindu texts.

The architecture of a Hindu temple in Sunak, Gujarat.
A folio of Visvakarmaprakasa, a minor Hindu architecture text discovered in Kathmandu valley, Nepal (Sanskrit Devanagari).
Some town plans recommended in the 700 CE Manasara Sanskrit text on Hindu architecture.
Elements in a North Indian temple (Madhya Pradesh).
The architectural plan of the Gondeshwar temple near Nashik (Maharashtra).
Drawing and notes on Hiti, a public water spout
Drawing and notes on Hiti, a public water spout, part 2
A mandala in Vastu Sastra Hiti Dayeka
Two leaves in Samkrantiyajnavidhi illustrating proportions for Harihara – half Shiva, half Vishnu.
A Vastu sastra page on home design, first line mentions vastu sastra
Lingaraja Temple (Bhubaneswar, Odisha)
Chennakeshava Temple, Belur (Karnataka)
Lalji temple (Bishnupur, Bankura, West Bengal)
Nata Mandir of Konark Sun Temple (Odisha)
Meenakshiamman Temple Gopuram (Madurai, Tamil Nadu)
Rani ka vav Gujarat, a historic public water tank with Hindu arts
Advaita Vedanta Monastery (Sringeri, Karnataka)
Pancha Rathas (Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu)
Sahastra Bahu Temples Torana (Nagda, Rajasthan)
Torana of Mukteshvara Temple, Bhubaneswar (Orisha)
A gopuram at the Arunachaleshvara Temple, Tiruvannamalai (Tamil Nadu)

By far the most important, characteristic and numerous surviving examples of Hindu architecture are Hindu temples, with an architectural tradition that has left surviving examples in stone, brick, and rock-cut architecture dating back to the Gupta Empire.

Chhatris are elevated, dome-shaped pavilions used as an element in Indian architecture, originating in Rajasthani architecture.