A report on Architecture of India

Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the early 6th century, near the end of the Gupta period.
The rock-cut Shore Temple of the temples in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, 700–728. Showing the typical dravida form of tower.
Hindu Temple basic floor design
The ninth century temple in Barakar shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.
Drawing of a pancharatha (5 ratha) plan of subsidiary shrines of Brahmeswara Temple
Palitana Jain Temples
Jain Temple complex, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, before 862
Temple ceiling of Ranakpur Jain Temple, Rajasthan
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, Lodi Gardens
Qutb complex
Burial place of Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Tombs beside Tomb of Fatima Khanam
Firoze Minar at Gaur
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Jama Masjid, Srinagar
The Golden Temple in Amritsar
Gurdwara Baba Atal is a 17th-century nine-storeyed Gurudwara in Amritsar
Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune.
Kee monastery, Spiti
Cluster of temples in Bishnupur
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari at Khanyan
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Lotus Temple, Delhi Fariborz Sahba
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Bimbisara visiting a bamboo garden in Rajagriha
Pari Mahal
Pointed arch, Mahabodhi temple, 6th–7th century CE, Late-Gupta period
Arches of Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi
Nav Toran Temple, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh
Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang
Angkor Wat
Wat Chaiwatthanaram, an example of Thai style prang
Masjid Ubudiah, showcasing elements of Indo-Saracenic style
Temples in Bagan
Ananda Temple terracotta plaque glazed in green
numerous rock-cut equivalents
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The Hindu Tigawa Temple, early 5th century.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Vishnu temple in Eran, 5th-6th century
The Buddhagupta pillar at Eran (c.476–495 CE)
Detailed carving of elephant, Ranakpur Jain Temple
Rani Ki Vav, Gujrat
Somanath Temple
Adalaj stepwell
Taranga Jain Temple, Gujrat
Safdarjung's Tomb is built in the late Mughal style for Nawab Safdarjung. The tomb is described as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture”
Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in Agra.It is noticeable for the first use of pietra dura technique. The tomb is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.
Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture.
Akbar's Tomb, Agra. Built with red sandstone by his son and grandson in 1605 to 1618.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|title=Humayun's Tomb, Delhi|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228192141/https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|archive-date=2019-02-28|url-status=live|access-date=2019-02-28}}</ref>
Stupas in Thikse Monastery
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Monastery assembly hall
Prayer hall at the Golden Temple in Bylakuppe, a Tibetan settlement in Karnataka
The Chandannagar Strand Ghat, reminiscences of a French colony, Chandannagar, West Bengal
Fort Dansborg, built by the 17th century Danish admiral Ove Gjedde, reminiscences of Danish India, Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu
Tomb of Susanna Anna Maria, reminisces of Dutch India, Chinsurah, West Bengal
Church Of St Francis Of Assisi, reminisce of Portuguese India, Goa
French Quarter, Pondicherry. The city became the chief French settlement in India.
Nishat Bagh, Srinagar
Lal Bagh, Bengaluru
View of the Mughal Garden of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Waterfall at Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Char Bagh Garden, Rajasthan
The Athpula (eight piers) bridge in Lodi gardens
Pataini temple is a Jain temple built during the Gupta period, 5th century CE<ref>{{cite book | last=Cunningham | first=Alexander | author-link=Alexander Cunningham | title=Report of a Tour in the Central Provinces in 1873-74 and 1874-75 | volume=9 | series=Archaeological Survey of India | publisher=Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing | year=1879 | url={{Google books|X88OAAAAQAAJ|page=31|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}} | page=31}}</ref>
Relief of Jain tirthankara Parshvanatha on the Kahaum pillar erected by Skandagupta in 461 CE

Rooted in its history, culture and religion.

- Architecture of India
Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha

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Islam in India

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India's second-largest religion, with 14.2% of the country's population, approximately 172.2 million people identifying as adherents of Islam in 2011 Census.

India's second-largest religion, with 14.2% of the country's population, approximately 172.2 million people identifying as adherents of Islam in 2011 Census.

Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE)
Cheraman Perumal Juma Masjid on the Malabar Coast, probably the first Mosque in India.
The Taj Mahal in Agra, India. It was built under Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in the 17th century, and represents Indo-Islamic architecture.
Muslim woman clad in fine Bengali muslin, in 18th-century Dhaka, Bengal Subah.
Maulana Azad was a prominent leader of the Indian independence movement and a strong advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Shown here is Azad (left) with Sardar Patel and Mahatma Gandhi in 1940.
The Partition of British India was based on religion. The negotiations failed several times, with differing demands about boundaries, as shown in this map of 1946.
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan with Gandhi in 1930. Also known as Frontier Gandhi, Khan led the non-violent opposition against the British Raj and strongly opposed the partition of India.
A train of Muslim refugees in India leaving for Pakistan
Mausoleum of 1 st Wali–ul–Hind:Moulai Abadullah, Khambat, Gujarat, era 1050–1100 CE.
Dawoodi Bohra 53rd Dai Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, with Dawat office at Mumbai.
Tomb of Sufi saint Shaikh Salim Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya movement
An outside view of the Maqbara.
Aligarh Muslim University
[[All India Ulema and Mashaikh Board|AIUMB
]] protest against caricature of Prophet of Islam in the city of Sambhal, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Char Minar at Old City in Hyderabad.
Ruins of the Surya Temple at Martand, which was destroyed due to the iconoclastic policies of Sikandar Butshikan, photo taken by John Burke in 1868.
Muslim homes and businesses burned during the 2020 Delhi riots.
The skyline of Ahmedabad filled with smoke as buildings and shops are set on fire by rioting mobs. The riots, which took place following the Godhra train burning incident, killed more than 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus, including those killed in the Godhra train fire. These figures were reported to the Rajya Sabha by the Union Minister of State for Home Affairs Sriprakash Jaiswal in May 2005.
The Jamalabad fort route. Mangalorean Catholics had travelled through this route on their way to Srirangapatna.
Azim Premji, CEO of India's 3rd largest IT company Wipro Technologies and the 5th richest man in India with an estimated fortune of US$17.1 billion
The Taj Mahal in Agra is one of India's most iconic monuments.
A rebuilt structure of the old Cheraman Juma Mosque, Kerala, which is often considered as the first Masjid of India
Asafi Imambargah, also known as Bara Imambara at Lucknow
The Humayun's Tomb in Delhi
Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, Karnataka, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.
Bahauddin Makbara, mausoleum of the Wazir of Junagadh, Gujarat
400-year-old Makkah Masjid, Hyderabad. (Photo: 1885)
The Asafi Mosque within the Asafi Imambargah Complex at Lucknow
The Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow
Gole-Gumma, Mousoleum of Nawab Wahab Khan, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh
Charminar, the most famous of the monuments of Hyderabad
Red Fort, Delhi
Jama Masjid, Delhi, one of the largest mosques in India

Architecture of India took new shape with the advent of Islamic rule in India towards the end of the 12th century CE.

Jaisalmer Fort, originally including the whole city, dominating the more recent city sections below.

Architecture of Rajasthan

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Jaisalmer Fort, originally including the whole city, dominating the more recent city sections below.
One of the Sahasra Bahu Temples built during the 10th century CE.
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer, by 1199
City Palace at Jaipur was designed by Vidyadhar Bhattarcharya and built between 1729 and 1732. The architecture of the palace shows clear Mughal influences on its Rajput Architecture.
Some of the Ahar Cenotaphs outside Udaipur
Mandapa ceiling in the Ranakpur Jain Temple
Remains of the Bairat stupa, 3rd century BCE
Ambika Mata temple in Jagat, Rajasthan, by 960
Ranakpur Jain temple
Dev Somnath Temple
Detailed Stone work, Karni Mata Temple, Bikaner Rajasthan
The Umaid Bhawan Palace at Jodhpur built between 1929 and 1942 is one of the largest royal palaces in the world. It was designed by Henry Vaughan Lanchester in a blend of Beaux-Arts and traditional Rajasthani styles.
Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner, designed in the Indo-Saracenic style by Samuel Swinton Jacob.
The Albert Hall Museum was designed by Samuel Swinton Jacob, and was opened as public museum in 1887.
Baroli Temples

The architecture of the Indian state of Rajasthan has usually been a regional variant of the style of Indian architecture prevailing in north India at the time.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

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Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

The evolution and refinement of Mughal and Indian architecture and in turn, the development of later Rajput and Sikh palatial architecture. A famous Mughal landmark is the Taj Mahal.

The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival architectural style in Peshawar, Pakistan.

Indo-Saracenic architecture

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Revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.

Revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.

The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival architectural style in Peshawar, Pakistan.
The Rambagh Palace in Jaipur reflecting Imperial Rajasthani architecture. Early 20th-century.
Aitchison College in Lahore with domed chhatris, jalis, chhajja below the balcony, and other features, reflective of Rajasthani architecture.
Vidhana Soudha, Bangalore incorporates elements of Indo-Saracenic and Dravidian styles. Constructed 1951–1956.
Sultan Abdul Samad Building in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, by Arthur Benison Hubback, 1910.
General Post Office (GPO), Kolkata
Ujjayanta Palace, Agartala
Esplanade Mansion, Kolkata
Building on B.B.D. Bagh, Kolkata
Metropolitan Building Façade, Kolkata
Albert Hall Museum, Jaipur
Jenkins School, Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar Palace, West Bengal
Ubudiah Mosque (Hubback, 1913), Kuala Kangsar, Perak
Jubilee Clock Tower in George Town, Penang
National Textile Museum in Kuala Lumpur, by Hubback, 1905. Originally as offices for the Federated Malay States Railways.
The Old High Court Building in Kuala Lumpur
Old Kuala Lumpur Town Hall, Hubback, 1896-1904
Jamek Mosque in Kuala Lumpur, by Hubback
Railway Administration Building, Kuala Lumpur
Kellie's Castle, Batu Gajah, Perak
The Gateway of India
The Taj Mahal Hotel in Mumbai
Southern Railway Headquarters, Chennai
Mysore Palace
The National Art Gallery (Chennai)
Victoria Public Hall in Chennai
Senate House (University of Madras)
Mumbai GPO, reminiscent of the Gol Gumbaz
Khalsa College, Amritsar
Daly College, Indore
Chepauk Palace, Chennai
Kachiguda Railway Station, Hyderabad
Lucknow Charbagh Railway Station
Raj Bhavan (backview), Kolkata
Howrah Railway Station
Ahsan Manzil in Dhaka
Curzon Hall in Dhaka
Tajhat Palace in Rangpur
Natore Rajbari
Rose Garden Palace
Uttara Gonobhaban
Murapara Rajbari
Puthia Rajbari
Bangladesh Folk Arts and Crafts Foundation
Chittagong Court Building
Lahore Museum, Lahore
Karachi Metropolitan Corporation Building, Karachi, 1927-30
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Sadiq Dane High School, Bahawalpur
Patiala Block of King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Karachi Chamber of Commerce Building
Darbar Mahal, Bahawalpur
Multan Clock Tower, Multan
National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi
Sezincote House, Gloucestershire, 1805
Royal Pavilion in Brighton, 1815–23
Western Pavilion in Brighton, 1828, designed by Amon Henry Wilds as his own home
Elephant Tea Rooms, Sunderland, 1877
Sassoon Mausoleum, now a chic Brighton supper club, 1892
Jami Ul-Alfar Mosque in Colombo
Jaffna Public Library in Jaffna
Jaffna Clock Tower in Jaffna
Original Honkan, Tokyo National Museum, by Josiah Conder, largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1923
Palais du Bardo, parc Montsouris, Paris

By doing this they kept Indian architecture while adding elements of British and European architecture; this, coupled with the British allowing some regional Indian princes to stay in power under agreements, made their presence more "palatable" for the Indians.

Cave 12, Ellora, a late multi-story rock-cut vihara. Further decoration of the pillars was probably intended.

Vihāra

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Vihāra generally refers to a Buddhist monastery for Buddhist renunciates, mostly in the Indian subcontinent.

Vihāra generally refers to a Buddhist monastery for Buddhist renunciates, mostly in the Indian subcontinent.

Cave 12, Ellora, a late multi-story rock-cut vihara. Further decoration of the pillars was probably intended.
Plan of cave 1 at Ajanta, a large vihara hall for prayer and living, 5th century
Cave 12, Ajanta Caves, cell entries off a vihara hall
Mahabodhi Temple in India.
Viharas found at Thotlakonda
The ruins of Shalvan Vihara, the Buddhist monastery that operated between 7th-12th century in what is now Mainamati, Bangladesh.
Vihara, locally called wihan, of Wat Chedi Luang in Northern Thailand
Cave 4, Ajanta Caves
Entrance to a vihara hall at Kanheri Caves
Wall carvings at Kanheri Caves
Simple slab abode beds in vihara at Kanheri Caves
Doorways of a Vihara, Bedse Caves

Vihara or vihara hall has a more specific meaning in the architecture of India, especially ancient Indian rock-cut architecture.

The Mosque of the Prophet, standing on the site of Muhammad's first mosque in Medina. The present-day building is the result of many reconstructions and expansions up to modern times.

Islamic architecture

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Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam.

Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam.

The Mosque of the Prophet, standing on the site of Muhammad's first mosque in Medina. The present-day building is the result of many reconstructions and expansions up to modern times.
Section of the Umayyad-era Mshatta Facade, now in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, from a palace near Amman
The walls and minaret of the Great Mosque of Samarra built by the Abbasids in the 9th century
The mihrab and maqsura area of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, added to the mosque by al-Hakam II in the late 10th century
Bab al-Futuh gate built by the Fatimid vazir Badr al-Jamali
Shalamar Gardens, a Mughal paradise garden in Lahore, Pakistan
The sahn (courtyard) and minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia
Qusair 'Amra
An iwan in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Ribbed dome in the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, dating from the 10th century
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Mosque in Qasr al-Hallabat
Entrance courtyard of Qasr al-Hallabat
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (late 7th century)
Tarikhaneh Temple, a pre-Islamic monument built in Sasanian Persia which was later turned into a mosque, showing elements of Iranian architecture before the spread of Islam
The Registan is the ensemble of three madrasas, in Samarkand, modern day Uzbekistan
Shah Mosque in Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Isfahan, Iran
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan
Portal of the Great Mosque of Divriği (1228–1229)
The Bāb al-Yaman (بَـاب ٱلْـيَـمَـن, Gate of the Yemen) in the Old City of Sana'a, Yemen
Demak Mosque One of the oldest surviving mosques in Indonesia.
The Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
A Tatar minaret dating from the 15th century
Almnara Tower Somalia
The 13th century Fakr ad-Din Mosque in Mogadishu
Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque at Muscat is the main mosque in the Sultanate of Oman, started in 1995 and inaugurated in 2001.
Faisal Mosque at Islamabad, Pakistan designed by Vedat Dalokay.
Museum of Islamic Art at Doha, Qatar designed by I. M. Pei.
Islamic geometric patterns in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Dome with squinches in the Palace of Ardashir of pre-Islamic Persia. squinches are one of the most significant Sasanian contribution to Islamic architecture<ref>{{cite web|last1=Huff|first1=D.|title=ARCHITECTURE iii. Sasanian Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica|url=http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/architecture-iii|access-date=16 March 2019|website=www.iranicaonline.org|publisher=Encyclopaedia Iranica}}</ref>
The dome of the Gur-i Amir Mausoleum in Samarqand
Non-radial rib vault in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Dome of the tomb of Ahmed Sanjar in Merv
Upper dome of Ālī Qāpū, Isfahan
VIew of the main dome at Humayun's Tomb in Delhi
Dome of Taj Mahal in Agra
The bulbous domes of the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
The main dome of Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta has tiles arranged in a stellate pattern to represent the night sky
The interior of the main dome of Shahi Hammam in Lahore
Schematic drawing of a pendentive dome
Central domes of the Hagia Sophia
Dome of the Kalenderhane Mosque
Selimiye Mosque, Edirne
Mashrabiya balcony in Bayt al-Suhaymi, Cairo (Egypt)
Hünkâr Mahfili (prayer space for the sultan) inside the Hagia Sophia (Turkey)
Use of Jali screen at Lahore Fort (Pakistan)
Jharokha balcony at Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur (India)
Design of a muqarnas quarter vault from the Topkapı Scroll
Muqarnas in the necropolis of Shah-i-Zinda, Samarqand
Muqarnas in the Alhambra
The muqarna of a mosque in Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Intricate design on the muqarna of Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore
Geometrical tile decoration (Zellij) in the Ben Youssef Madrasa in Marrakesh
Dome of the Shah Mosque in Isfahan with calligraphic inscription
Bengali Islamic terracotta on a 17th-century mosque in Tangail, Bangladesh
Tiles in Topkapı Palace, an example of Ottoman Architecture
Much of the interior of Emperor Jahangir's mausoleum in Lahore is adorned with Mughal-era frescoes.
Calligraphic inscription on the dome of the Mevlana mausoleum
Design of Ceiling in the Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar
Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Cordoba (10th century)
Stucco-carved mihrab of Uljaytu at the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan (early 14th century)
Mihrab of the Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan in Cairo (14th century)
Ottoman mihrab with Iznik tiles in the Rüstem Pasha Mosque, Istanbul (16th century)
Mihrab of the Jama Masjid in Delhi (mid-17th century)
Minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (early 9th century)
Minaret of Jam, Afghanistan (12th century)
Minaret of Sultan Qaytbay (15th century) at the Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo
Ottoman minarets of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul (early 17th century)
Qutb Minar of Delhi (12th century)
Medina quarter of Fez, Morocco
Figure-ground diagram of Algiers
Figure-ground diagram of a European town (1819)
Kharraqan Towers, mausoleums of Seljuk princes, built in 1068 and 1093 in Iran
Dome in the Friday Mosque of Isfahan, Iran, added in 1088–89 by Seljuk vizier Taj al-Mulk
Ghaznavid Tower of Mas'ud III near Ghazni (present-day Afghanistan), from the early 12th century
Ribat-i Sharaf caravanserai in Khorasan (northeastern Iran), built in 1114–1115
The Kalyan Minaret in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan), built in 1127 as part of a Qarakhanid congregational mosque
Toghrol Tower in Rayy, south of present-day Tehran (Iran), built in 1139 as the tomb of the Seljuk sultan Tughril
Mausoleum of Sultan Ahmad Sanjar (c. 1152) in Merv (present-day Turkmenistan)
Hospital of Nur al-Din, Damascus (1154)
Qarakhanid Mausoleums in Uzgen (Kyrgyzstan), second half of the 12th century
Minaret of the al-Nuri Mosque in Mosul (before its destruction in 2017), dating from the 12th century
Courtyard façade of the Great Mosque of Diyarbakir, founded in the 7th century and rebuilt by the Artuqids in the 12th century
Yedi Kardeş Tower in the city walls of Diyarbakir, built by Artuqid sultan Nasir al-Din Mahmud in 1208–1209
Mausoleum of Fakhr al-Din Razi or Il-Arslan in Kunya-Urgench (Turkmenistan), late 12th or early 13th century (Khwarazmian Empire period)
Zinciriye or Sultan Isa Madrasa in Mardin (1385)
Hypostyle interior of the Alâeddin Mosque in Konya (12th-13th centuries)
Seljuk mosaic tile decoration from the Kubadabad Palace (early 13th-century Anatolia)
Courtyard of the Sultan Han caravanserai, built in 1229 on the road between Aksaray and Konya
Interior of the Çifte Minareli Medrese in Erzurum (c. 1250)
Entrance portal of the Karatay Madrasa in Konya (c. 1251), with muqarnas and ablaq decoration
Tile decoration inside the Karatay Madrasa in Konya (c. 1251)
Stone-carved decoration in the entrance portal of the Ince Minareli Medrese in Konya (c. 1265)
Entrance and minarets of the Gök Medrese in Sivas (1271–2)
Döner Kümbet in Kayseri (1276), the tomb of a Seljuk princess
Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir (1297), an example of a wooden hypostyle mosque
The Green Mosque in Iznik (late 14th century)<ref>{{Cite book|last=Goodwin|first=Godfrey|title=A History of Ottoman Architecture|publisher=Thames & Hudson|year=1971|isbn=0500274290|location=New York|pages=20}}</ref>
The Grand Mosque of Bursa (end of 14th century)
Tiled mihrab of the Green Mosque in Bursa (early 15th century)
Courtyard of the Bayezid II Mosque, Istanbul (late 15th century)
Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul (16th century), designed by Mimar Sinan
One of the chambers of the Topkapı Palace
Interior of Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul (early 17th century)
Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Istanbul (mid-18th century), an example of the Ottoman Baroque style
The sebil of Abdülhamid I, Istanbul (late 18th century)<ref>{{Cite book|last=Goodwin|first=Godfrey|title=A History of Ottoman Architecture|publisher=Thames & Hudson|year=1971|isbn=0500274290|location=New York}}</ref>
Entrance gates of the Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul (19th century)
Istanbul High School (19th century)
Examples of civil Ottoman architecture in Eskişehir
Yalı is a house or mansion constructed along the shores of the Bosphorus near Istanbul
Reception Hall of Abd ar-Rahman III at Madinat al-Zahra (10th century, caliphal period)
Aljaferia Palace in Zaragoza (11th century, Taifa period)
Almoravid Qubba in Marrakesh (early 12th century, Almoravid period)
Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh (12th century, Almohad period)
Giralda tower in Seville: former Almohad minaret (12th century) converted into a Christian bell tower
Kasbah Mosque in Tunis (13th century, Hafsid period)
Bou Inania Madrasa in Fes (14th century, Marinid period)
The Court of the Lions at the Alhambra, Granada (14th century, Nasrid period)
Dome of the Hall of Ambassadors in the Alcazar of Seville (14th century): an example of Mudejar architecture
Youssef Dey Mosque in Tunis (17th century): an example of Ottoman influence blended with local styles
Central mosque of Ghardaïa: an example of local architecture in the M'zab region (Algeria)
Mihrab of the Mausoleum of Sultan Baybars in Damascus (built 1277-1281)
Complex of Sultan Qalawun in Cairo (built in 1284–85). It included a mausoleum, a madrasa, and a highly important maristan (hospital).<ref>{{Cite book|last=Raymond|first=André|title=Le Caire|publisher=Fayard|year=1993|isbn=9782213029832}}</ref>
Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad (built in 1318 and modified in 1335) at the Citadel of Cairo
The Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Hasan (built between 1356 and 1361), the largest and one of the most impressive Mamluk monuments{{sfn|Blair|Bloom|1995|p=82}}{{sfn|Williams|2018|p=78}}
Projecting entrance portal of the Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Barquq (built between 1384 and 1386)
Interior of a mausoleum in the Khanqah-Mosque of Faraj ibn Barquq (built between 1400 and 1411)
Twin minarets of Bab Zuweila, built between 1415 and 1420 for the nearby Mosque of al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh
Carved stone dome of the Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay (completed in 1474) in the Northern Cemetery of Cairo
Sabil of Qaytbay (1482) at the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem
Wikala of Sultan al-Ghuri (1505), example of an urban caravanserai in Cairo
Sabil-Kuttab of Abd ar-Rahman Katkhuda (1744), which combines Mamluk and Ottoman elements{{sfn|Williams|2018|p=230}}
Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi Mosque in Alexandria, built in the 1940s in a neo-Mamluk style
The Taj Mahal, the most famous building of Mughal architecture.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569-70 CE
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan, Pakistan
Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan
Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad
Baradri (a type of Mughal building) at Fatima Jinnah Park in Islamabad
Gol Gumbaz built by the Bijapur Sultanate in Deccani style
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan
Sixty Dome Mosque in Bangladesh
Gate of Panembahan Senapati Mosque in Kotagede, Yogyakarta.
The Grand Mosque of the Masjid Agung in Central Java, Indonesia, features a multi-layered roof typical of Indonesian mosque architecture.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Indonesia, with Mughal and Dutch Colonial influences.
The Menara Kudus Mosque employs a Hindu-Buddhist temple-like structure as a minaret<ref name="Schoppert, P. 1997, p. 207">Schoppert, P., Damais, S., Java Style, 1997, Didier Millet, Paris, p. 207, {{ISBN|962-593-232-1}}</ref>
Masjid Kampung Laut
Masjid Zahir
Kampung Hulu Mosque
Sultan Alaeddin Royal Mosque
Paloh Mosque
The Mosque of Arwa bint Ahmad in Jibla (11th century), an example of a hypostyle courtyard mosque
Great Mosque of Zabid, with one of the oldest surviving minarets in Yemen (circa 13th century)
Central dome of the Ashrafiyya Mosque in Ta'izz (circa 1397)
Shibam, an example of a historic fortified village
Minaret at the Jama Masjid in Delhi (mid-17th century)
alt=|The Qutb Minar and Quwwat al-Islam Mosque complex in Delhi, begun in the 1190s and expanded in the 13th to 14th centuries{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture}}
The Friday Mosque of Ahmedabad (1423), which prominently combines Islamic and indigenous Indian architectural forms{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture; VI. c. 1250–c. 1500; A. Eastern Islamic lands; 3. India}}
alt=|Fatehpur Sikri, a palatial complex begun in the 1560s by Akbar{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Fatehpur Sikri}}
Charminar in Hyderabad (1591), an example of architecture in the Deccan Sultanates{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Hyderabad}}
Room with fountain in the Muthamman Burj (1628–30), added by Shah Jahan inside the Agra Fort built by Akbar{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Agra}}
The Red Fort in Delhi, built between 1639 and 1648 as the citadel of Shah Jahan's new capital{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Delhi}}
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore (1635), notable for its tile-decorated surfaces{{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=250}}
alt=|Badshahi Mosque in Lahore ({{circa|1673}}–1674){{sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture; VII. c. 1500–c. 1900; D. India}}
alt=|Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad (1678){{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=277}}
The Asfi Mosque of the Bara Imambara complex in Lucknow ({{circa|1780}}){{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=285}}

Further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia.

In adding the dome to the Florence Cathedral (Italy) in the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.

Architecture

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Both the process and the product of sketching, conceiving, planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures.

Both the process and the product of sketching, conceiving, planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures.

In adding the dome to the Florence Cathedral (Italy) in the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.
Illustration of bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers from Yingzao Fashi, a text on architecture by Li Jue (1065–1110)
Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734.
The National Congress of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer
Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785)
Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Music Room 1901
Body plan of a ship showing the hull form
In Norway: wood and elevated-level
In Lesotho: rondavel stones
In Ireland: Yola hut
In Romania: peasant houses in the Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum (Bucharest)
Göbekli Tepe from Turkey, founded in 10th millennium BC and abandoned in 8th millennium BC
Pottery miniature of a Cucuteni-Trypillian house
Miniature of a regular Cucuteni-Trypillian house, full of ceramic vessels
Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae (Mainland, Orkney, Scotland, UK)
Mesopotamian architecture: Reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum (Berlin, Germany), circa 575 BC
Ancient Egyptian architecture: The Great Pyramid of Giza (Giza, Egypt), circa 2589-2566 BC, by Hemiunu
Ancient Greek architecture: The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, made of marble and limestone, 460-406 BC
Ancient Roman architecture: The Maison Carrée from Nîmes (France), one of the best-preserved Roman temples, circa 2 AD
Indian architecture: The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple (Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India), circa 1030
Chinese architecture: The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the main building of the Temple of Heaven (Beijing, China), 1703-1790
Japanese architecture: The Himeji Castle (Himeji, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan), 1609
Khmer architecture: The Bakong (near Siem Reap, Cambodia), earliest surviving Temple Mountain at Angkor, completed in 881 AD
Moorish architecture: Grand arches of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain)
Persian architecture: The Jameh Mosque in Isfahan (Iran)
Mughal architecture: The Taj Mahal in Agra (India)
Ottoman architecture: The interior side view of the main dome of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne (Turkey)
Byzantine architecture: Apse of Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome), decorated in the 5th century with this glamorous mosaic
Romanesque architecture: Interior of the Durham Cathedral (Durham, UK), 1093-1133
Gothic architecture: Stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, completed in 1248, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220
Brâncovenesc architecture: The Stavropoleos Church (downtown Bucharest, Romania), with elaborate paintings on the façade, 1724
The Florence Cathedral (Florence, Italy), 1294–1436, by Arnolfo di Cambio, Filippo Brunelleschi and Emilio De Fabris
The Tempietto (Rome), by Donato Bramante, 1444-1514
The Hall of Perspective from Villa Farnesina (Rome), by Baldassare Peruzzi, 1505-1510
The Villa La Rotonda (Vicenza, Italy), 1567 - {{c.|1592}}, by Andrea Palladio
The Château de Chenonceau (France), by Philibert de l'Orme, 1576
Baroque architecture: The Château de Maisons (France), by François Mansart, 1630–1651
Rococo architecture: The pièce de la vaisselle d'or (Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France)
Neoclassical architecture: The west facade of the Petit Trianon (Versailles), 1764, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Historicist architecture (in this case Gothic Revival): Interior of the All Saints (London), 1850–1859, by William Butterfield
19th century Eclectic Classicist architecture: The Museum of Ages on Victory Avenue (Bucharest, Romania), late 19th century, unknown architect
19th century industrial architecture: Les Halles (Paris), 1850s-destroyed in 1971, by Victor Baltard
Orientalist architecture: The Éden-Théâtre (Paris), early 1880s-demolished in 1895, by William Klein and Albert Duclos
Revivalist architecture of a national style (in this case Romanian Revival): The Cihoski House on Bulevardul Dacia (Bucharest), late 19th-early 20th century, unknown architect
Beaux-Arts architecture: The CEC Palace on Victory Avenue (Bucharest), 8 June 1897 – 1900, by Paul Gottereau<ref>{{cite book|last1=Marinache|first1=Oana|title=Paul Gottereau - Un Regal în Arhitectură|date=2017|publisher=Editura Istoria Artei|isbn=978-606-8839-09-7|page=184|url=|language=ro}}</ref>
Art Nouveau architecture: The Entrance of the Castel Béranger (Paris), 1895–1898, by Hector Guimard
Early Modern architecture: The Fagus Factory (Alfeld, Germany), 1911, by Walter Gropius
Expressionist architecture: The Einstein Tower (Potsdam, near Berlin, Germany), 1919–1922, by Erich Mendelsohn
Art Deco architecture: The Théâtre des Champs-Élysées (Paris), 1910–1913, by Auguste Perret
International Style: The Glaspaleis (Heerlen, the Netherlands), 1934–1935, by Frits Peutz and Philip Johnson
Piazza d'Italia (New Orleans, USA), 1978, by Charles Moore
Team Disney Building (Los Angeles, USA), 1990, by Michael Graves
Multicolour interior of the Cambridge Judge Business School (Cambridge, the UK), 1995, by John Outram
The Dancing House (Prague, Czech Republic), 1996, by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry
The Meadows Museum (Dallas, Texas, USA), 2001, by HBRA architects
The Beijing National Stadium (Beijing, China), 2003–2007, by Herzog & de Meuron
The Library and Learning Center of the University of Vienna (Vienna, Austria), 2008, by Zaha Hadid
The Isbjerget housing project (Aarhus, Denmark), inspired by form and color of icebergs, 2013, by CEBRA, JDS Architects, Louis Paillard, and SeARCH
Japanese architecture: Hōryū-ji, a Buddhist temple in Nara Prefecture, Japan, 607 AD

Indian and Chinese architecture influenced forms all over Asia and Buddhist architecture in particular took diverse local flavors.

Jali screens in the tomb of Akbar the Great near Agra, India

Jali

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Term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy, geometry or natural patterns.

Term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy, geometry or natural patterns.

Jali screens in the tomb of Akbar the Great near Agra, India
Nachna Parvati-Temple Jali, Gupta period
Pattadakal window
another window at Pattadakal
Pattadakal Virupaksa temple window
Chola temple
thumb|Window at Alai Darwaza, Qutb complex
Jali in Sidi Saiyyed mosque in Ahmedabad exhibiting traditional Indian tree of life motif
Jali at Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri shows Islamic geometric patterns developed in western asia
Details of marble Jali screens around royal cenotaphs, Taj Mahal
Jali at Bibi Ka Maqbara, Aurangabad with typical Indian motifs
Jali at Champaner utilize traditional indian geometric patterns and Islamic geometry
thumb|Jalis in Mohammad Gaus Tomb Gwalior
19th century houses in Gwalior
Jali panels in Rajput style, Hawa Mahal, Jaipur

This form of architectural decoration is common in Indo-Islamic architecture and more generally in Indian architecture.

The placement of the ambulatory within a standard cathedral.

Ambulatory

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Covered passage around a cloister or the processional way around the east end of a cathedral or large church and behind the high altar.

Covered passage around a cloister or the processional way around the east end of a cathedral or large church and behind the high altar.

The placement of the ambulatory within a standard cathedral.
Horton Court ambulatory, c.1527
Ambulatory of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice.

The same feature is often found in Indian architecture and Buddhist architecture generally, especially in older periods.

One of the most famous Gothic Revival structures, Elizabeth Tower sits at the Palace of Westminster in London.

Revivalism (architecture)

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Use of visual styles that consciously echo the style of a previous architectural era.

Use of visual styles that consciously echo the style of a previous architectural era.

One of the most famous Gothic Revival structures, Elizabeth Tower sits at the Palace of Westminster in London.
The Russian Revival-representing Uspenski Cathedral from 1868 in Katajanokka, Helsinki, Finland
Typical historicist house: Gründerzeit building by Arwed Roßbach in Leipzig, Germany (built in 1892)
1862 lithograph of the Aegyptischer Hof (English: Egyptian court), from the Neues Museum (Berlin), built in the Neo-Egyptian style
St. Michael the Archangel Church in Kaunas was built in Neo-Byzantine style
Schwerin Palace, historical ducal seat of Mecklenburg, Germany – an example of pompous renaissance revival for representation purposes (built in 1857)
Opera, Paris (Palais Garnier) by Charles Garnier, 1861-1875

Indo-Saracenic architecture (revival of Indian architecture and Islamic architecture)