Architecture of India

Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the early 6th century, near the end of the Gupta period.
The rock-cut Shore Temple of the temples in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, 700–728. Showing the typical dravida form of tower.
Hindu Temple basic floor design
The ninth century temple in Barakar shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.
Drawing of a pancharatha (5 ratha) plan of subsidiary shrines of Brahmeswara Temple
Palitana Jain Temples
Jain Temple complex, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, before 862
Temple ceiling of Ranakpur Jain Temple, Rajasthan
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, Lodi Gardens
Qutb complex
Burial place of Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Tombs beside Tomb of Fatima Khanam
Firoze Minar at Gaur
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Jama Masjid, Srinagar
The Golden Temple in Amritsar
Gurdwara Baba Atal is a 17th-century nine-storeyed Gurudwara in Amritsar
Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune.
Kee monastery, Spiti
Cluster of temples in Bishnupur
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari at Khanyan
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Lotus Temple, Delhi Fariborz Sahba
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Bimbisara visiting a bamboo garden in Rajagriha
Pari Mahal
Pointed arch, Mahabodhi temple, 6th–7th century CE, Late-Gupta period
Arches of Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi
Nav Toran Temple, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh
Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang
Angkor Wat
Wat Chaiwatthanaram, an example of Thai style prang
Masjid Ubudiah, showcasing elements of Indo-Saracenic style
Temples in Bagan
Ananda Temple terracotta plaque glazed in green
numerous rock-cut equivalents
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The Hindu Tigawa Temple, early 5th century.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Vishnu temple in Eran, 5th-6th century
The Buddhagupta pillar at Eran (c.476–495 CE)
Detailed carving of elephant, Ranakpur Jain Temple
Rani Ki Vav, Gujrat
Somanath Temple
Adalaj stepwell
Taranga Jain Temple, Gujrat
Safdarjung's Tomb is built in the late Mughal style for Nawab Safdarjung. The tomb is described as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture”
Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in Agra.It is noticeable for the first use of pietra dura technique. The tomb is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.
Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture.
Akbar's Tomb, Agra. Built with red sandstone by his son and grandson in 1605 to 1618.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|title=Humayun's Tomb, Delhi|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228192141/https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|archive-date=2019-02-28|url-status=live|access-date=2019-02-28}}</ref>
Stupas in Thikse Monastery
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Monastery assembly hall
Prayer hall at the Golden Temple in Bylakuppe, a Tibetan settlement in Karnataka
The Chandannagar Strand Ghat, reminiscences of a French colony, Chandannagar, West Bengal
Fort Dansborg, built by the 17th century Danish admiral Ove Gjedde, reminiscences of Danish India, Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu
Tomb of Susanna Anna Maria, reminisces of Dutch India, Chinsurah, West Bengal
Church Of St Francis Of Assisi, reminisce of Portuguese India, Goa
French Quarter, Pondicherry. The city became the chief French settlement in India.
Nishat Bagh, Srinagar
Lal Bagh, Bengaluru
View of the Mughal Garden of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Waterfall at Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Char Bagh Garden, Rajasthan
The Athpula (eight piers) bridge in Lodi gardens

Rooted in its history, culture and religion.

- Architecture of India
Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha

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In adding the dome to the Florence Cathedral (Italy) in the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.

Architecture

Both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures.

Both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures.

In adding the dome to the Florence Cathedral (Italy) in the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.
Illustration of bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers from Yingzao Fashi, a text on architecture by Li Jue (1065–1110)
Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734.
The National Congress of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer
Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785)
Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Music Room 1901
Body plan of a ship showing the hull form
In Norway: wood and elevated-level
In Lesotho: rondavel stones
In Ireland: Yola hut
In Romania: peasant houses in the Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum (Bucharest)
Göbekli Tepe from Turkey, founded in 10th millennium BC and abandoned in 8th millennium BC
Pottery miniature of a Cucuteni-Trypillian house
Miniature of a regular Cucuteni-Trypillian house, full of ceramic vessels
Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae (Mainland, Orkney, Scotland, UK)
Mesopotamian architecture: Reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum (Berlin, Germany), circa 575 BC
Ancient Egyptian architecture: The Great Pyramid of Giza (Giza, Egypt), circa 2589-2566 BC, by Hemiunu
Ancient Greek architecture: The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, made of marble and limestone, 460-406 BC
Ancient Roman architecture: The Maison Carrée from Nîmes (France), one of the best-preserved Roman temples, circa 2 AD
Indian architecture: The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple (Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India), circa 1030
Chinese architecture: The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the main building of the Temple of Heaven (Beijing, China), 1703-1790
Japanese architecture: The Himeji Castle (Himeji, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan), 1609
Khmer architecture: The Bakong (near Siem Reap, Cambodia), earliest surviving Temple Mountain at Angkor, completed in 881 AD
Moorish architecture: Grand arches of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain)
Persian architecture: The Jameh Mosque in Isfahan (Iran)
Mughal architecture: The Taj Mahal in Agra (India)
Ottoman architecture: The interior side view of the main dome of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne (Turkey)
Byzantine architecture: Apse of Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome), decorated in the 5th century with this glamorous mosaic
Romanesque architecture: Interior of the Durham Cathedral (Durham, UK), 1093-1133
Gothic architecture: Stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, completed in 1248, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220
Brâncovenesc architecture: The Stavropoleos Church (downtown Bucharest, Romania), with elaborate paintings on the façade, 1724
The Florence Cathedral (Florence, Italy), 1294–1436, by Arnolfo di Cambio, Filippo Brunelleschi and Emilio De Fabris
The Tempietto (Rome), by Donato Bramante, 1444-1514
The Hall of Perspective from Villa Farnesina (Rome), by Baldassare Peruzzi, 1505-1510
The Villa La Rotonda (Vicenza, Italy), 1567 - {{c.|1592}}, by Andrea Palladio
The Château de Chenonceau (France), by Philibert de l'Orme, 1576
Baroque architecture: The Château de Maisons (France), by François Mansart, 1630–1651
Rococo architecture: The pièce de la vaisselle d'or (Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France)
Neoclassical architecture: The west facade of the Petit Trianon (Versailles), 1764, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Historicist architecture (in this case Gothic Revival): Interior of the All Saints (London), 1850–1859, by William Butterfield
19th century Eclectic Classicist architecture: The Museum of Ages on Victory Avenue (Bucharest, Romania), late 19th century, unknown architect
19th century industrial architecture: Les Halles (Paris), 1850s-destroyed in 1971, by Victor Baltard
Orientalist architecture: The Éden-Théâtre (Paris), early 1880s-demolished in 1895, by William Klein and Albert Duclos
Revivalist architecture of a national style (in this case Romanian Revival): The Cihoski House on Bulevardul Dacia (Bucharest), late 19th-early 20th century, unknown architect
Beaux-Arts architecture: The CEC Palace on Victory Avenue (Bucharest), 8 June 1897 – 1900, by Paul Gottereau<ref>{{cite book|last1=Marinache|first1=Oana|title=Paul Gottereau - Un Regal în Arhitectură|date=2017|publisher=Editura Istoria Artei|isbn=978-606-8839-09-7|page=184|url=|language=ro}}</ref>
Art Nouveau architecture: The Entrance of the Castel Béranger (Paris), 1895–1898, by Hector Guimard
Early Modern architecture: The Fagus Factory (Alfeld, Germany), 1911, by Walter Gropius
Expressionist architecture: The Einstein Tower (Potsdam, near Berlin, Germany), 1919–1922, by Erich Mendelsohn
Art Deco architecture: The Théâtre des Champs-Élysées (Paris), 1910–1913, by Auguste Perret
International Style: The Glaspaleis (Heerlen, the Netherlands), 1934–1935, by Frits Peutz and Philip Johnson
Piazza d'Italia (New Orleans, USA), 1978, by Charles Moore
Team Disney Building (Los Angeles, USA), 1990, by Michael Graves
Multicolour interior of the Cambridge Judge Business School (Cambridge, the UK), 1995, by John Outram
The Dancing House (Prague, Czech Republic), 1996, by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry
The Meadows Museum (Dallas, Texas, USA), 2001, by HBRA architects
The Beijing National Stadium (Beijing, China), 2003–2007, by Herzog & de Meuron
The Library and Learning Center of the University of Vienna (Vienna, Austria), 2008, by Zaha Hadid
The Isbjerget housing project (Aarhus, Denmark), inspired by form and color of icebergs, 2013, by CEBRA, JDS Architects, Louis Paillard, and SeARCH

Indian and Chinese architecture influenced forms all over Asia and Buddhist architecture in particular took diverse local flavors.

White marble cupolas cap minarets at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan

Cupola

Relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.

Relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.

White marble cupolas cap minarets at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan
Cupolas on the towers of Montefiascone Cathedral, Italy.
Interior of cupola ceiling in the old Synagogue of Győr, Hungary.
Ribbed cupola crowns the minaret of the Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan, Tunisia.
Inside of Armenian Orthodox church cupola in Lviv, Ukraine.
Cupolas were also used on some old barns for ventilation.
View from the interior of the Cupola module on the International Space Station.
Trompe-l'œil painting of a cupola in a church in Northern Italy (Brivio)
A cupola-style caboose with an "angel seat" above

The chhatri, seen in Indian architecture, fits the definition of a cupola when it is used atop a larger structure.

James Fergusson (architect)

Scottish-born architectural historian, mainly remembered for his interest in Indian historical architecture and antiquities.

Scottish-born architectural historian, mainly remembered for his interest in Indian historical architecture and antiquities.

Grave of William and James Fergusson in Highgate Cemetery

His observations on Indian architecture were first published in his book on The Rock-cut Temples of India, published in 1845.

Stucco used as an exterior coating on a residential building.

Stucco

Construction material made of aggregates, a binder, and water.

Construction material made of aggregates, a binder, and water.

Stucco used as an exterior coating on a residential building.
Rock dash stucco used as an exterior coating on a house on Canada's west coast. The chips of quartz, stone, and colored glass measure approx. 3-6 mm (1/8" - 1/4").
Baroque stucco decorations of the main nave of the Jasna Góra Monastery basilica, 1693–1695
Bridges Hall of Music in Claremont, California (1915), an example of a stucco-clad reinforced concrete structure
Applying stucco
The tools used to plaster walls
Damaged stucco that has begun to delaminate from its masonry substrate.
Diagram showing the use of wire mesh as a substrate for an exterior application of Portland cement.
Fragment from a Roman relief; c. 138–161 AD; height: 20.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Statue of seated Buddha; c. 300s; overall: 36.9 cm; from Hadda (Afghanistan); Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)
Iranian relief plaque with confronted ibexes; 5th or 6th century AD (the Sasanian period); stucco originally with polychrome painting; Cincinnati Art Museum (Cincinnati, USA)
Maya wall panel depicting Ix K'an Bolon; circa 790 AD (Late Classic period); limestone, stucco and paint; from Pomona (Tabasco, Mexico) Dallas Museum of Art (Dallas, Texas, USA)

Indian architecture used stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context.

A model of Jiangzhai, a Yangshao village

Chinese architecture

Architectural style that developed over millennia in China, before spreading out to influence architecture throughout East Asia.

Architectural style that developed over millennia in China, before spreading out to influence architecture throughout East Asia.

A model of Jiangzhai, a Yangshao village
The Wonderland of Fanghu in the Old Summer Palace.It was destroyed by the Anglo-French Allied Forces in 1860. (Fanghu is one of the wonderlands on the sea in Chinese myths. It is the same as Fangzhang. "方壶",同"方丈",是中国传说中海上三仙山之一. )
The Meridian Gate of the Forbidden City
A tomb mural of Xinzhou, dated to the Northern Qi (550–577 AD) period, showing a hall with a tiled roof, dougong brackets, and doors with giant door knockers (perhaps made of bronze)
Model of a Chinese Siheyuan in Beijing, which shows off the symmetry, enclosed heavy platform and a large roof that floats over this base, with the vertical walls not as well emphasized.
Han yuan tu by Li Rongjin, Yuan dynasty
Jianzhang Palace, Yuan dynasty
Que 闕 towers along the walls of Tang-era Chang'an, as depicted in this 8th-century mural from Prince Li Chongrun's tomb at the Qianling Mausoleum in Shaanxi
Nanchan Temple (Wutai), built in the late 8th century during the Tang dynasty
A timber hall built in 857 during the Tang dynasty, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple of Mount Wutai, Shanxi
Models of watchtowers and other buildings made during the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 25–220); while these models were made of ceramics, the real versions were made of easily perishable wood and have not survived.
A stone-carved pillar-gate, or que (闕), 6 m in total height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya'an, Sichuan province, Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD); notice the stone-carved decorations of roof tile eaves, despite the fact that Han Dynasty stone que (part of the walled structures around tomb entrances) lacked wooden or ceramic components (but often imitated wooden buildings with ceramic roof tiles).
These rammed earth ruins of a granary in Hecang Fortress (Chinese: 河仓城; Pinyin: Hécāngchéng), located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Yumen Pass, were built during the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and significantly rebuilt during the Western Jin (280–316 AD).
Remnants of the Great Wall of Qi on Dafeng Mountain, Changqing District, Jinan, which was once part of the ancient State of Qi during the Warring States Period (475–221 BC).
The Great Wall of China at Mutianyu, near Beijing, built during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
A pavilion inside the Zhuozheng Garden in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, one of the finest gardens in China
The Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 during the Sui dynasty. It is the oldest fully stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge in the world.
The Gate detail at the Winter Palace of the Bogd Khan, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia contains Chinese architectural influences.
A group of temples at the top of Mount Taishan, where structures have been built at the site since the 3rd century BC during the Han dynasty
Nanshan Temple in Longkou, Shandong.
Lianhuashan (lit. "lotus flower mountain") Temple in Dalian
The Nine Pinnacle Pagoda, built in the 8th century during the Tang dynasty
A Chinese pavilion instead of a minaret at the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
The Fogong Temple Pagoda, located in Ying county, Shanxi province, built in 1056 during the Liao dynasty, is the oldest existent fully wooden pagoda in China
The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an, rebuilt in 704 during the Tang dynasty
The Songyue Pagoda, built in 523 AD during the Northern and Southern dynasties
The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD during the Song dynasty
Hua Si Gongbei (the mausoleum of Ma Laichi) in Linxia City, Gansu
The Grand East Hall of the Foguang Temple(佛光寺东大殿), in Mount Wutai
The Liaodi Pagoda, the tallest pre-modern Chinese pagoda, built in 1055 during the Song dynasty
Yungang Grottoes(云冈石窟), Datong(大同), China.
Temples in Mount Wutai(五台山)
Birdview of the Zunsheng Temple(尊胜寺) in Mount Wutai
Goddess Temple of Jinci(晋祠圣母殿), Taiyuan
Pingyao(平遥) City Wall
A market street in Pingyao ancient city
Wang Family Compound(王家大院), in Lingshi
Qiao Family Compound(乔家大院), Jingyi Court in Qi County
Chang Family Studies, Yuci
The Ho Ancestral Hall in Panyu, Guangzhou; Built in 14th century, it utilizes manner door – a second door behind the main one, which is related to Cantonese Feng shui culture.
Chan Clan Academy in Gwongzau is often cited as a representative example of Lingnan architecture.
A cold alley in Chan Clan Academy; A "Narrow Door" leads to the next alley.
A monument in honor of the Cantonese folk hero Wong Fei-hung, in Foshan.
Most Hongkongese are of Cantonese origin. Thus, Hong Kong naturally has a lot of buildings of classical Lingnan style. Pictured is a Mazu temple in Shek Pai Wan, Hong Kong.
Nanfeng Ancestral Temple at Chiàu-an, Changchow, Hokkien (the name of Fujian in the Hokkien language.
Cut porcelain carving decorations above the main door of Nanfeng Ancestral Temple.
A Mazu temple in Chiayi City, Taiwan.
A shrine for Tudigong, a Taoist earth deity, in Kaohsiung, Taiwan; It is an example of a less garish swallowtail roof.
Front entrance of Thian Hock Keng Temple, Singapore.
Confucian academy in Fuzhou
Jiangxi's indigenous architecture – Liukeng village.
A "Pai tau uk" (牌頭屋) in Nanchang, Jiangxi.
A residence in Jinxi county, Fuzhou.
Entrance to a residence in a hutong.
Shikumen in Xintiandi lanes in Shanghai.
Great Wall of Qi in Shandong.
Du Fu Thatched Cottage in Sichuan.
Jinci in the Jin Chinese-speaking province of Shanxi.

In South Asia, Chinese architecture has played a significant role in shaping Sri Lankan architecture, alongside influences from India and other parts of Southeast Asia.

Cave 12, Ellora, a late multi-story rock-cut vihara. Further decoration of the pillars was probably intended.

Vihāra

Vihāra generally refers to a Buddhist monastery for Buddhist renunciates, mostly in the Indian subcontinent.

Vihāra generally refers to a Buddhist monastery for Buddhist renunciates, mostly in the Indian subcontinent.

Cave 12, Ellora, a late multi-story rock-cut vihara. Further decoration of the pillars was probably intended.
Plan of cave 1 at Ajanta, a large vihara hall for prayer and living, 5th century
Cave 12, Ajanta Caves, cell entries off a vihara hall
Mahabodhi Temple in India.
Viharas found at Thotlakonda
The ruins of Shalvan Vihara, the Buddhist monastery that operated between 7th-12th century in what is now Mainamati, Bangladesh.
Vihara, locally called wihan, of Wat Chedi Luang in Northern Thailand
Cave 4, Ajanta Caves
Entrance to a vihara hall at Kanheri Caves
Wall carvings at Kanheri Caves
Simple slab abode beds in vihara at Kanheri Caves
Doorways of a Vihara, Bedse Caves

Vihara or vihara hall has a more specific meaning in the architecture of India, especially ancient Indian rock-cut architecture.

The placement of the ambulatory within a standard cathedral.

Ambulatory

Covered passage around a cloister or the processional way around the east end of a cathedral or large church and behind the high altar.

Covered passage around a cloister or the processional way around the east end of a cathedral or large church and behind the high altar.

The placement of the ambulatory within a standard cathedral.
Horton Court ambulatory, c.1527
Ambulatory of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice.

The same feature is often found in Indian architecture and Buddhist architecture generally, especially in older periods.

Jaisalmer Fort, originally including the whole city, dominating the more recent city sections below.

Architecture of Rajasthan

Jaisalmer Fort, originally including the whole city, dominating the more recent city sections below.
One of the Sahasra Bahu Temples built during the 10th century CE.
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer, by 1199
City Palace at Jaipur was designed by Vidyadhar Bhattarcharya and built between 1729 and 1732. The architecture of the palace shows clear Mughal influences on its Rajput Architecture.
Some of the Ahar Cenotaphs outside Udaipur
Mandapa ceiling in the Ranakpur Jain Temple
Remains of the Bairat stupa, 3rd century BCE
Ambika Mata temple in Jagat, Rajasthan, by 960
Ranakpur Jain temple
Dev Somnath Temple
Detailed Stone work, Karni Mata Temple, Bikaner Rajasthan
The Umaid Bhawan Palace at Jodhpur built between 1929 and 1942 is one of the largest royal palaces in the world. It was designed by Henry Vaughan Lanchester in a blend of Beaux-Arts and traditional Rajasthani styles.
Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner, designed in the Indo-Saracenic style by Samuel Swinton Jacob.
The Albert Hall Museum was designed by Samuel Swinton Jacob, and was opened as public museum in 1887.
Baroli Temples

The architecture of the Indian state of Rajasthan has usually been a regional variant of the style of Indian architecture prevailing in north India at the time.

Jodhpur Mehrangarh Jharokha

Jharokha

Stone window projecting from the wall face of a building, in an upper story, overlooking a street, market, court or any other open space.

Stone window projecting from the wall face of a building, in an upper story, overlooking a street, market, court or any other open space.

Jodhpur Mehrangarh Jharokha
A jharokha in Maheshwar Fort, Madhya Pradesh
Several jharokha can be seen jutting out from the facade of this typical haveli at Jaisalmer, Rajasthan

A common feature in classical Indian architecture, most prominent in Rajasthan.

The earliest surviving chaitya arch, at the entrance to the Lomas Rishi Cave, 3rd century BC

Gavaksha

The earliest surviving chaitya arch, at the entrance to the Lomas Rishi Cave, 3rd century BC
The city of Kusinagara in the War over the Buddha's Relics, South Gate, Stupa no. 1, Sanchi.
Piled-up gavakshas at Osian, Jodhpur
The last chaitya hall window, Cave 10, Ellora, c. 650
Conjectural reconstruction of the main gate of Kusinagara circa 500 BCE adapted from [[:File:City of Kusinagara in the War over the Buddha's Relics, South Gate, Stupa no. 1, Sanchi.jpg|this]] relief at Sanchi.
Interior of a rock-cut chaitya hall, Bhaja Caves, the ribs in wood
Chaitya arch motif in a vihara at Bedse Caves
Side wall inside the chaitya at Bedse Caves
Development of the Chaitya Arch from Lomas Rishi Cave, from a book by Percy Brown.
Scene on the Bodh Gaya railings (replica), representing a building
Exterior of chaitya hall, Cave 9, Ajanta Caves, 1st century BCE. The chaitya arch window frame is repeated several times as a decorative motif.
Chaitya arch motif in a vihara at Ajanta
Entrance to Cave 19, Ajanta Caves, late 5th century, also with four zones using the "chaitya arch" motif
Modern hut of the Toda people
North roof of Gop Surya temple, Gujarat, c. late 6th / early 7th century
Two chaitya arch motifs on top of each other. Hindu temple, Osian, Jodhpur, 8th century.
Gavaksha at Nalanda
Sukanasa with Shiva Nataraja and small gavaksha motifs, Jambulingeshwara Temple, Pattadakal, 7th-8th century.<ref>Michell, 105</ref>
The decoration of the 9th-century Kasivisvanatha temple at Pattadakal includes gavakshas in several forms
Elaborated gavakshas at the early 9th-century Jain Cave 32 at Ellora
"Honeycomb" of gavakshas on the shikhara of the Vamana Temple, Khajuraho, 1050-75
Candi Bima temple, Dieng temples, Java, 8th century
Bhima Ratha (Five Rathas), Mahabalipuram

In Indian architecture, gavaksha or chandrashala (kudu in Tamil, also nāsī) are the terms most often used to describe the motif centred on an ogee, circular or horseshoe arch that decorates many examples of Indian rock-cut architecture and later Indian structural temples and other buildings.