Arctic Circle

circumpolarArcticCircumpolar arcticarctic circumpolarArctic Polar CircleArctic regionCirclecurrent geographical meaningFar NorthLand of the Midnight Sun
The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.wikipedia
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Polar circle

high polar latitudespolar
The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
A polar circle is either the Arctic Circle or the Antarctic Circle.

Midnight sun

polar daywhite nightsArctic summer
It marks the northernmost point at which the centre of the noon sun is just visible on the December solstice and the southernmost point at which the centre of the midnight sun is just visible on the June solstice. The Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the centre of the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for twenty-four hours; as a result, at least once each year at any location within the Arctic Circle the sun is visible at local midnight, and at least once the centre is not visible at local noon.
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the Sun remains visible at the local midnight.

Circle of latitude

parallelparallelscircles of latitude
The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
By definition, the positions of the Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle all depend on the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of its orbit around the sun (the "obliquity of the ecliptic").

Arctic

Arctic regionThe Arcticcircumpolar
The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone.
The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33'N), the approximate southern limit of the midnight sun and the polar night.

Equator

equatorial planeThe Equator
The position of the Arctic Circle is not fixed and currently runs north of the Equator.
The latitude of the Earth's equator is, by definition, 0° (zero degrees) of arc. The equator is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth; the other four are both polar circles (the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle) and both tropical circles (the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn).

Temperate climate

temperatetemperate zonetemperate zones
The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone.
The temperate zones (latitudes from 23.5° to the polar circles at about 66.5°, north and south) are where the widest seasonal changes occur, with most climates found in it having some influence from both the tropics and the poles.

Antarctic Circle

AntarcticcircumpolarAntarctic regions
This is also true in the Antarctic region, south of the equivalent Antarctic Circle.
South of the Antarctic Circle, the sun is above the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore visible at midnight) and the centre of the sun is below the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore not visible at noon); this is also true within the equivalent polar circle in the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic Circle.

Climate of the Arctic

Arctic climatearcticarctic weather
Only four million people live north of the Arctic Circle due to the climate; nonetheless, some areas have been settled for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, who today make up 10% of the region's population.

Norilsk

Noril'sk-TalnakhNorilsk ComplexNoril'sk
The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia, Norway, and Sweden: Murmansk (population 295,374), Norilsk (178,018), Tromsø (75,638), Vorkuta (58,133), and Kiruna (16,936).
Norilsk is an industrial city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula.

Bering Strait

Bering StraitsIce CurtainBeering's Straits
Tens of thousands of years ago, waves of people migrated from eastern Siberia across the Bering Strait into North America to settle.
The Bering Strait is a strait of the Pacific, which separates Russia and the United States slightly south of the Arctic Circle at about 65° 40' N latitude.

Tromsø

Tromsø MunicipalityTromsoTromsø, Norway
The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia, Norway, and Sweden: Murmansk (population 295,374), Norilsk (178,018), Tromsø (75,638), Vorkuta (58,133), and Kiruna (16,936).
It is the largest urban area in Northern Norway and the third largest north of the Arctic Circle anywhere in the world (following Murmansk and Norilsk).

Murmansk

Murmansk, RussiaMurmansk, Soviet UnionAleksandrovsk
The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia, Norway, and Sweden: Murmansk (population 295,374), Norilsk (178,018), Tromsø (75,638), Vorkuta (58,133), and Kiruna (16,936).
Its northern latitude of 68°58'N makes Murmansk 2° north of the Arctic Circle at approximately 66°33'N.

Rovaniemi

Rovaniemi, Finland Rovaniemi, FinlandRovaniemen
Rovaniemi (62,667) in Finland is the largest settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Arctic Circle, lying 6 km south of the line.
It is situated about 6 km south of the Arctic Circle and is between the hills of Ounasvaara and Korkalovaara, at the confluence of the river Kemijoki and its tributary, the Ounasjoki.

Solstice

solsticessummer solsticewinter solstice
Directly on the Arctic Circle these events occur, in principle, exactly once per year: at the June and December solstices, respectively.
Also during the June solstice, places on the Arctic Circle (latitude 66.56° north) will see the Sun just on the horizon during midnight, and all places north of it will see the Sun above horizon for 24 hours.

Utqiagvik, Alaska

Barrow, AlaskaUtqiagvikBarrow
Of the Arctic communities in Canada and the United States, Utqiagvik, Alaska is the largest settlement with about 4,000 inhabitants.
Utqiaġvik ( Inupiaq: Utqiaġvik, ), officially the City of Utqiaġvik, formerly known as Barrow, is the largest city and the borough seat of the North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska and is located north of the Arctic Circle.

Vorkuta

Vorkuta, Soviet Unionnorthern partVorkuta Sovetskiy
The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia, Norway, and Sweden: Murmansk (population 295,374), Norilsk (178,018), Tromsø (75,638), Vorkuta (58,133), and Kiruna (16,936).
Vorkuta (Воркута́; Вӧркута, Vörkuta; Nenets for "the abundance of bears", "bear corner") is a coal-mining town in the Komi Republic, Russia, situated just north of the Arctic Circle in the Pechora coal basin at the Usa River.

Polar night

Arctic nightArctic winter24-hour darkness
The Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the centre of the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for twenty-four hours; as a result, at least once each year at any location within the Arctic Circle the sun is visible at local midnight, and at least once the centre is not visible at local noon.
For regions inside the polar circles, the maximum lengths of the time that the Sun is completely below the horizon varies from zero a few degrees beyond the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle to 179 days at the Poles.

Northern Hemisphere

NorthernNorth HemisphereNorthern Hemispheric
The Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the centre of the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for twenty-four hours; as a result, at least once each year at any location within the Arctic Circle the sun is visible at local midnight, and at least once the centre is not visible at local noon.
Areas inside the Arctic Circle (66°34′ latitude) experience some days in summer when the Sun never sets, and some days during the winter when it never rises.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
Above the Arctic Circle, an extreme case is reached where there is no daylight at all for part of the year, up to six months at the North Pole itself, a polar night.

Arctic Ocean

ArcticArctic SeaArctic coast
The Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America, and Greenland.
The few expeditions to penetrate much beyond the Arctic Circle in this era added only small islands, such as Novaya Zemlya (11th century) and Spitzbergen (1596), though since these were often surrounded by pack-ice, their northern limits were not so clear.

Grímsey

GrimseyGrimsey Island
The land within the Arctic Circle is divided among eight countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the United States (Alaska), Canada (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut), Denmark (Greenland), and Iceland (where it passes through the small offshore island of Grímsey).
Grímsey is a small Icelandic island, 40 km off the north coast of the main island of Iceland, straddling the Arctic Circle.

Nordland

Nordlands AmtNordland CountyCounty of Nordland
These are Helgeland in the south (south of the Arctic Circle), Salten in the centre, and Ofoten in the northeast.

Scandinavian Peninsula

ScandinavianScandinavianorthern Scandinavian
The Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America, and Greenland.
About one quarter of the Scandinavian Peninsula lies north of the Arctic Circle, its northernmost point being at Cape Nordkyn, Norway.

Siberia

SiberianEastern SiberiaEast Siberia
Tens of thousands of years ago, waves of people migrated from eastern Siberia across the Bering Strait into North America to settle.
On the north coast, north of the Arctic Circle, there is a very short (about one month long) summer.

Norwegian Sea

NorwegianIcelandic SeaNorth Norwegian Sea
The so-called East Iceland Current transports cold water south from the Norwegian Sea toward Iceland and then east, along the Arctic Circle; this current occurs in the middle water layer.