A report on Arctic Ocean

The Arctic Ocean, with borders as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), including Hudson Bay (some of which is south of 57°N latitude, off the map).
Decrease of old Arctic Sea ice 1982–2007
Thule archaeological site
Emanuel Bowen's 1780s map of the Arctic features a "Northern Ocean".
The Arctic region showing the Northeast Passage, the Northern Sea Route within it, and the Northwest Passage.
A bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
The Arctic region; of note, the region's southerly border on this map is depicted by a red isotherm, with all territory to the north having an average temperature of less than 10 C in July.
Distribution of the major water mass in the Arctic Ocean. The section sketches the different water masses along a vertical section from Bering Strait over the geographic North Pole to Fram Strait. As the stratification is stable, deeper water masses are denser than the layers above.
Density structure of the upper 1200 m in the Arctic Ocean. Profiles of temperature and salinity for the Amundsen Basin, the Canadian Basin and the Greenland Sea are sketched.
A copepod
The Kennedy Channel.
Sea cover in the Arctic Ocean, showing the median, 2005 and 2007 coverage
Three polar bears approach USS Honolulu near the North Pole.
Minke whale
Walruses on Arctic ice floe

Smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.

- Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean, with borders as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), including Hudson Bay (some of which is south of 57°N latitude, off the map).

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Overall

Extent of the Atlantic Ocean according to the 2002 IHO definition, excluding Arctic and Antarctic regions

Atlantic Ocean

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Second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106460000 km2.

Second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106460000 km2.

Extent of the Atlantic Ocean according to the 2002 IHO definition, excluding Arctic and Antarctic regions
The Aethiopian Ocean in a 1710 French map of Africa
False color map of ocean depth in the Atlantic basin
As the Gulf Stream meanders across the North Atlantic from the North American east coast to Western Europe its temperature drops by 20 C-change.
Path of the thermohaline circulation. Purple paths represent deep-water currents, while blue paths represent surface currents.
In the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic warm subtropical waters are transformed into colder subpolar and polar waters. In the Labrador Sea this water flows back to the subtropical gyre.
Approximate extent of the Sargasso Sea
Sargassum fish (Histrio histrio)
Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.
Tropical wet and dry climate in San Andrés Island Caribbean, Colombia
Iceberg A22A in the South Atlantic Ocean
Excavation of the Ertebølle middens in 1880
Based on the medieval Íslendingasögur sagas, including the Grœnlendinga saga, this interpretative map of the "Norse World" shows that Norse knowledge of the Americas and the Atlantic remained limited.
The Atlantic Gyres influenced the Portuguese discoveries and trading port routes, here shown in the India Run ("Carreira da Índia"), which would be developed in subsequent years.
Embarked and disembarked slaves in the Atlantic slave trade 1525–1863 (first and last slave voyages)
Cod fishery in Norway
Banks of the North-East Atlantic
Banks of the North-West Atlantic
Capture of Atlantic north-west cod in million tons
Bahama Banks
Agulhas Bank
Marine debris strewn over the beaches of the South Atlantic Inaccessible Island

As one component of the interconnected World Ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica).

Greenland

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Island country that is part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Island country that is part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Greenland visible from space
Areas of Independence I and Independence II cultures around Independence Fjord
The Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle Ages)
One of the last contemporary written mentions of the Norse Greenlanders records a marriage which took place in 1408 in the church of Hvalsey – today the best-preserved Nordic ruins in Greenland. The married couple then travelled to Iceland, which is why the account has been preserved.
Ingibjørg Tombstone.
Pictures of Greenland, c. 1863
An English map of 1747, based on Hans Egede's descriptions and misconceptions, by Emanuel Bowen
Godthåb in Greenland, c. 1878
1869 photograph of Greenlandic Inuit.
Map of Eirik Raudes Land
The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language is governed by Oqaasileriffik, the Greenlandic language secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland, Nuuk.
The United States has operated Thule Air Base since the 1950s.
Sermiligaaq. Greenland has more than 60 settlements.
Map of Greenland
Greenland bedrock, at current elevation above sea level
Aurora Borealis, the northern lights at the sky in Greenland
Muskoxen in Greenland
The Greenland Dog was brought from Siberia 1,000 years ago.
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Disko Bay near Ilulissat
The special territories of the European Union (pre 31 January 2020)
Nuuk is Greenland's capital and the seat of the government.
Municipalities of Greenland
A proportional representation of Greenland exports, 2019
Greenland electricity production by source
Air Greenland operates passenger and cargo freight services by air from, to and across Greenland.
Arctic Umiaq Line operates passenger and freight services by sea across Greenland.
Buses service in Ilulissat
Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk
A bilingual sign in Nuuk, displaying the Danish and Kalaallisut for "Parking forbidden for all vehicles"
Ilimmarfik university Campus in Nuuk
Most Greenlandic villages, including Nanortalik, have their own church.
Nive Nielsen, Greenlandic singer and songwriter
Panel discussion with Greenlandic movie maker Inuk Silis Høegh at the launch of his movie about groundbreaking Greenlandic band Sumé
Teletaarnet Headquarters in Nuuk Greenland
Arctic television in Ilulissat
Estimated extent of Arctic cultures in Greenland from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Colored areas on each map indicate the extent and migration patterns over time of the Dorset, Thule, and Norse cultures.
Pilersuisoq Supermarket in Kangerlussuaq

It is located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Broken pieces of Arctic sea ice with a snow cover.

Sea ice

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Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.

Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.

Broken pieces of Arctic sea ice with a snow cover.
Hypothetical sea ice dynamics scenario showing some of the most common sea ice features.
Nilas in Baffin Bay
Distinction between 1st year sea ice (FY), 2nd year (SY), multiyear (MY) and old ice.
Satellite image of sea ice forming near St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea.
Seasonal variation and annual decrease of Arctic sea ice volume as estimated by measurement backed numerical modelling.
Volume of arctic sea ice over time using a polar coordinate system draw method (time goes counter clockwise; one cycle per year)
As ice melts, the liquid water collects in depressions on the surface and deepens them, forming these melt ponds in the Arctic. These fresh water ponds are separated from the salty sea below and around it, until breaks in the ice merge the two.
Rare phenomenon – the formation of ball ice. Stroomi Beach, Tallinn, Estonia.
Aerial view showing an expanse of drift ice offshore Labrador (Eastern Canada) displaying floes of various sizes loosely packed, with open water in several networks of leads. (Scale not available.)
Aerial view showing an expanse of drift ice in southeastern Greenland, comprising loosely packed floes of various sizes, with a lead developing in the centre.(Scale not available.)
Aerial view showing an expanse of drift ice consisting mostly of water. (Scale not available.)
Close-up view inside a drift ice zone: several small rounded floes are separated from each other by slush or grease ice. (Bird at lower right for scale.)
Example of hummocky ice: an accumulation of ice blocks, here about {{convert|20|to|30|cm|abbr=on}} in thickness (with a thin snow cover).
Field example of a pressure ridge. Only the sail (the part of the ridge above the ice surface) is shown in this photograph – the keel is more difficult to document.
Aerial view of the Chukchi Sea between Chukotka and Alaska, displaying a pattern of leads. Much of the open water inside those leads is already covered by new ice (indicated by a slightly lighter blue color)(scale not available).
Change in extent of the Arctic Sea ice between April and August, in 2013.
Sea ice off Baffin Island.
Sea ice imitates the shoreline along the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Clear view of the Antarctic Peninsula, the Larsen Ice Shelf and the sea ice-covered waters around the region.

Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean.

Alaska

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State located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity of North America.

State located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity of North America.

A modern Alutiiq dancer in traditional festival garb
The Russian settlement of St. Paul's Harbor (present-day Kodiak town), Kodiak Island, 1814
Miners and prospectors climb the Chilkoot Trail during the 1898 Klondike Gold Rush
U.S. troops navigate snow and ice during the Battle of Attu in May 1943
Alaska's size compared with the 48 contiguous states (Albers equal-area conic projection)
Denali is the highest peak in North America.
Although entirely east of the International Date Line (the triangular kink in the line was agreed upon the US acquisition of Alaska), the Aleutian Islands cross the 180th meridian, such that they contain both the westernmost (Amatignak) and the easternmost (Semisopochnoi) points in the United States
Anchorage, Alaska's largest city
Fairbanks, Alaska's second-largest city and by a significant margin the largest city in Alaska's interior
Juneau, Alaska's third-largest city and its capital
Bethel, the largest city in the Unorganized Borough and in rural Alaska
Homer, showing (from bottom to top) the edge of downtown, its airport and the Spit
Utqiaġvik (Browerville neighborhood near Eben Hopson Middle School shown), known colloquially for many years by the nickname "Top of the World", is the northernmost city in the United States.
Cordova, built in the early 20th century to support the Kennecott Mines and the Copper River and Northwestern Railway, has persevered as a fishing community since their closure.
Main Street in Talkeetna
Alaska has more acreage of public land owned by the federal government than any other state.
Köppen climate types of Alaska
Map of the largest racial/ethnic group by borough. Red indicates Native American, blue indicates non-Hispanic white, and green indicates Asian. Darker shades indicate a higher proportion of the population.
St. Michael's Russian Orthodox Cathedral in downtown Sitka
Gold Rush-era Baptist church in Eagle
Aerial view of infrastructure at the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field
The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports oil, Alaska's most financially important export, from the North Slope to Valdez. The heat pipes in the column mounts are pertinent, since they disperse heat upwards and prevent melting of permafrost.
Alaska proven oil reserves peaked in 1973 and have declined more than 60% since then
Alaskan oil production peaked in 1988 and has declined more than 75% since then
Halibut, both as a sport fish and commercially, is important to the state's economy.
A dog team in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, arguably the most popular winter event in Alaska
Mask Display at Iñupiat Heritage Center in Utqiaġvik
Films featuring Alaskan wolves usually employ domesticated wolf-dog hybrids to stand in for wild wolves.
The Kachemak Bay Campus of the University of Alaska Anchorage, located in downtown Homer
The Sterling Highway, near its intersection with the Seward Highway
The Susitna River bridge on the Denali Highway is 1036 ft long.
Alaska Interstate Highways
Alaska welcome sign on the Klondike Highway
An Alaska Railroad locomotive over a bridge in Girdwood approaching Anchorage (2007)
The White Pass and Yukon Route traverses rugged terrain north of Skagway near the Canada–US border.
The (named after Tustumena Glacier) is one of the state's many ferries, providing service between the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island and the Aleutian Chain.
A Bombardier Dash 8, operated by Era Alaska, on approach to Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport
The center of state government in Juneau. The large buildings in the background are, from left to right: the Court Plaza Building (known colloquially as the "Spam Can"), the State Office Building (behind), the Alaska Office Building, the John H. Dimond State Courthouse, and the Alaska State Capitol. Many of the smaller buildings in the foreground are also occupied by state government agencies.
A line graph showing the presidential vote by party from 1960 to 2016 in Alaska
Mike Dunleavy, Governor
Kevin Meyer, Lieutenant governor
Lisa Murkowski, senior United States senator
Dan Sullivan, junior United States senator
Don Young, U.S. representative (at-large) (Deceased)
Bob Bartlett & Ernest Gruening, Alaska's inaugural U.S. Senators, hold the 49 star U.S. Flag after the admission of Alaska as the 49th state.
Ketchikan, one of the places affected by COVID-19 during the 2020 outbreak in Alaska

To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas of the Arctic Ocean, while the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest.

Inuit

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Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, ᐃᓄᒃ, dual: Inuuk, ᐃᓅᒃ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland (Denmark), Canada, and Alaska (United States).

Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, ᐃᓄᒃ, dual: Inuuk, ᐃᓅᒃ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland (Denmark), Canada, and Alaska (United States).

Dorset, Norse, and Thule cultures 900–1500
A European ship coming into contact with Inuit in the ice of Hudson Bay in 1697.
An anonymous 1578 illustration believed to show Kalicho (left), and Arnaq and Nutaaq (right)
Hudson's Bay Company Ships bartering with Inuit off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait, 1819
Distribution of Inuit dialects
Inupiat man in a kayak, Noatak, Alaska, c. 1929 (photo by Edward S. Curtis)
Urbanization in Greenland
Covered Inuit basket, Alaska, undated
Caribou skin parka from Nunavut with hood for carrying a baby
Kalaallit girl's clothing from Western Greenland
Group of Inuit people building an igloo
Inupiat woman, Alaska, circa 1907
An Inupiat family from Noatak, Alaska, 1929.
Some Inuit (including Alaska Natives) believed that the spirits of their ancestors could be seen in the aurora borealis
Inuit Circumpolar Conference members
Regions of Inuit Nunangat
Two Inuit elders share Maktaaq in 2002
An Inuit woman uses a traditional amauti and a modern western stroller
Inuit seal hunter in a kayak, armed with a harpoon

Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec, Nunatsiavut and NunatuKavut in Labrador, and in various parts of the Northwest Territories, particularly around the Arctic Ocean, in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.

Location of the Barents Sea

Barents Sea

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Location of the Barents Sea
Shores of the Barents (Murman) Sea. From "Tabula Russiae", Joan Blaeu's, Amsterdam, 1614.
Phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea. The milky-blue colour that dominates the bloom suggests that it contains large numbers of coccolithophores.
Dutch whalers near Svalbard, 1690
The harbour of the Murmansk Fjord.
Signing of the Russian-Norwegian Treaty, 15 September 2010
Honningsvåg is the most northerly fishing village in Norway
Panoramic view of the Barents sea near Honningsvåg, Norway.

The Barents Sea (, also ; Barentshavet, ; Баренцево море) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia and divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.

An azimuthal projection showing the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole. The map also shows the 75th parallel north and 60th parallel north.

North Pole

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Point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

Point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

An azimuthal projection showing the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole. The map also shows the 75th parallel north and 60th parallel north.
Temporary research station of German-Swiss expedition on the sea ice at the Geographic North Pole. Drillings at the landing site at 90°N showed an average ice thickness of 2.5 metres on April 16, 1990
This pressure ridge at the North Pole is about 1 km long, formed between two ice floes of multi-year ice.
Gerardus Mercator's map of the North Pole from 1595
C.G. Zorgdragers map of the North Pole from 1720
Nansen's ship Fram in the Arctic ice
Peary's sledge party at what they claimed was the North Pole, 1909. From left: Ooqueah, Ootah, Henson, Egingwah, and Seeglo.
USS Skate at drift station Alpha, 1958
Icebreaker Arktika, the first surface ship to reach the North Pole
Participants of the first German North Pole expedition 1990 from University of Giessen
The German North Pole expedition 1990, Ski-Doo for local research on pack-ice
USS Charlotte at the North Pole in 2005
MIR submersible, one of the two vehicles that were used in the first ever manned descent to the seabed under the North Pole
Yemelya, an all terrain amphibious vehicle
Arctic ice shrinkages of 2007 compared to 2005 and also compared to the 1979–2000 average.
Sunset over the North Pole at the International Dateline, 2015
Although heavily disputed by modern historians, Peary & his team were given credit for the discovery of the North Pole by the contemporary press.

While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice.

Polar bear

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Polar bears have evolved adaptations for Arctic life. For example, large furry feet and short, sharp, stocky claws give them good traction on ice.
Bears investigate the submarine USS Honolulu 280 mi from the North Pole
Polar bear jumping on fast ice in Spitsbergen Island, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway
Subadult males frequently play-fight. During the mating season, actual fighting is intense and often leaves scars or broken teeth.
The polar bear's long muzzle and neck help it to search in deep holes for seals, while its powerful hindquarters enable it to drag massive prey
Bear feeding on a bearded seal
Cubs are born helpless and typically nurse for two and a half years
Mother and cub on Svalbard, Norway
Skins of hunted bears
Road sign warning about the presence of bears. The Norwegian text translates into "Applies to all of Svalbard".
Dogsleds are used for recreational hunting of polar bears in Canada
Polar bear in Denver Zoo.
Map from the U.S. Geological Survey shows projected changes in polar bear habitat from 2001 to 2010 and 2041 to 2050. Red areas indicate loss of optimal polar bear habitat; blue areas indicate gain.
Mothers and cubs have high nutritional requirements, which are not met if the seal-hunting season is too short
Starving bear near Svalbard
Swimming
Engraving, made by Chukchi carvers in the 1940s on a walrus tusk, depicts polar bears hunting walrus
Greenland's 1911 five kroner note depicting a polar bear

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.

North America

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Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Map of populous North America showing physical, political and population characteristics as per 2018
Map of North America, from 1621
The totality of North America seen by the Apollo 16 crew, with Canada being covered by clouds
Landforms and land cover of North America
Sonoran Desert in Arizona
Moraine Lake in Banff National Park
Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland
Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States and Mexico
Geologic map of North America published by USGS
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
Non-native nations' control and claims over North America c. 1750–2008
Native languages of the US, Canada, Greenland, and Northern Mexico
Percentage of people who identify with a religion in North America, according to 2010–2012 data
Mexican President Peña Nieto, U.S. President Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network
Baseball is traditionally known as America's national pastime, but is also played in Canada, and many Latin American countries as well.
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Simplified map of subsistence methods in the Americas at 1000 BCE
hunter-gatherers
simple farming societies
complex farming societies (tribal chiefdoms or civilizations)

It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea, and to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean.

Northwest Passage routes

Northwest Passage

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Northwest Passage routes
Envisat ASAR mosaic of the Arctic Ocean (September 2007), showing the most direct route of the Northwest Passage open (yellow line) and the Northeast Passage partially blocked (blue line). The dark grey colour represents the ice-free areas, while green represents areas with sea ice.
Two maps of arctic regions published in 1856 on a single sheet as part of The Royal Illustrated Atlas of Modern Geography
The fabled Strait of Anián, shown in the upper left corner of the map. (Hugo Allard, 1685)
Chart of the World showing New Route (the Canadian Pacific Railway) through Canada between England, China, Japan, Australasia and the East (1886)
Map of the Arctic region showing the Northeast Passage, the Northern Sea Route within it, and the Northwest Passage.
Map of the route followed by the US ship SS Manhattan in 1969.
Parry Channel: East end at Lancaster Sound north of Baffin Island.
Parry Channel: West end at Prince of Wales Strait northwest of Victoria Island.
Assumed route of the Strait of Anián
Ellis expedition: Voyage to Hudson Bay, in 1746 and 1747
1765 globe by Guillaume Delisle, showing a fictional Northwest Passage.
Das Eismeer (The Sea of Ice), 1823–1824, a painting by Caspar David Friedrich showing a shipwreck at right. It was inspired by William Edward Parry's account from his 1819–1820 expedition. Kunsthalle Hamburg, Germany.
Sir John Franklin, the leader of the 1845 expedition.
The North-West Passage (1874), a painting by John Everett Millais representing British frustration at the failure to conquer the passage.
Tate Britain, London.
Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen was the first to sail through the Northwest Passage in 1903–1906.
Amundsen's was the first vessel to transit the passage.
Northwest Passage Drive Expedition (NWPDX) (2009–2011)
Arctic shrinkage as of 2007 compared to previous years

The Northwest Passage (NWP) is the sea route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.