Arctic Ocean

ArcticArctic SeaArctic coastArctic watersArctic seasArctic BasinPolar Sea85th parallel north86th parallel north87th parallel north
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.wikipedia
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Ocean

marineoceansmaritime
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans.

North America

NorthNorth AmericanNA
Located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, besides its surrounding waters the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America.
It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North Pole

NorthGeographic North Pole90
Located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, besides its surrounding waters the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America.
While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice.

Sea ice

ice floesicepack ice
It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter.
Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean.

Siberia

SiberianEastern SiberiaEast Siberia
At this time, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to north west North America (Alaska), leading to the Settlement of the Americas.
between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins.

Arctic ice pack

Arctic sea iceArctic ice capArctic ice
The Arctic Ocean's surface temperature and salinity vary seasonally as the ice cover melts and freezes; its salinity is the lowest on average of the five major oceans, due to low evaporation, heavy fresh water inflow from rivers and streams, and limited connection and outflow to surrounding oceanic waters with higher salinities.
The Arctic ice pack is the sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity.

Alaska

CityAKAlaskan
The Dorset were the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture in the Arctic before the migration east from present-day Alaska of the Thule, the ancestors of the modern Inuit.
To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean.

World Ocean

Ocean Seaoceanoceans
It is classified as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, and it is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean.
It is divided into a number of principal oceanic areas that are delimited by the continents and various oceanographic features: these divisions are the Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean (sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic), Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Southern Ocean, defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) in 2000, based on evidence that this region of the World Ocean has a distinct ecosystem and a unique impact on global climate.

Northwest Passage

North-West PassageNorth West PassageNorthwestern Passages
The fervent desire of European merchants for a northern passage, the Northern Sea Route or the Northwest Passage, to "Cathay" (China) caused water to win out, and by 1723 mapmakers such as Johann Homann featured an extensive "Oceanus Septentrionalis" at the northern edge of their charts.
The Northwest Passage (NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Polar regions of Earth

polar regionpolarpolar regions
For much of European history, the north polar regions remained largely unexplored and their geography conjectural.
These high latitudes are dominated by Earth's polar ice caps: the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica.

Drifting ice station

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Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean.
Soviet and Russian staffed drifting ice stations are research stations built on the ice of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean.

Greenland

Kalaallit NunaatGreenlandicGL
It is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, Greenland, and by several islands.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat, ; Grønland, ) is the world's largest island, located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Arctic convoys of World War II

Arctic convoysArctic convoyArctic
In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was heavily contested: the Allied commitment to resupply the Soviet Union via its northern ports was opposed by German naval and air forces.
There were 78 convoys between August 1941 and May 1945, sailing via several seas of the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, with two gaps with no sailings between July and September 1942, and March and November 1943.

Barents Sea

BarentsBarentz SeaBarents Sea, Arctic
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
The Barents Sea (, also ; Barentshavet, ; Баренцево море) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia and is divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.

Beaufort Sea

BeaufortBeaufort Sea areanatural gas and petroleum
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
The Beaufort Sea (Mer de Beaufort) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, and west of Canada's Arctic islands.

Chukchi Sea

ChukchiChuckchi SeaChuckchi
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
Chukchi Sea, sometimes referred to as the Chukotsk Sea or the Sea of Chukotsk, is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

East Siberian Sea

Eastern Siberian SeaEast SiberianEast Siberian Arctic Shelf
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
The East Siberian Sea is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean.

Hudson Bay

Hudson's BayHudsonBaie d'Hudson
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
Although not geographically apparent, it is for climatic reasons considered to be a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

Kara Sea

KaraSouth Kara SeaKara Shelf
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoye more) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.

Laptev Sea

Laptev
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
The Laptev Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea and Labrador Sea.
It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents of Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

Greenland Sea

GreenlandOddenEast Greenland Sea
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea and Labrador Sea.
The Greenland Sea is a body of water that borders Greenland to the west, the Svalbard archipelago to the east, Fram Strait and the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Norwegian Sea and Iceland to the south.

Baffin Bay

Baffin Sea
It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water.
The narrower Nares Strait connects Baffin Bay with the Arctic Ocean.

Icebreaker

icebreakingice breakerice breaking
The first nautical transit of the north pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus, and the first surface nautical transit occurred in 1977 by the icebreaker NS Arktika.
The mixed ethnic group of the Karelians and the Russians in the North-Russia that lived on the shores of the Arctic Ocean became known as Pomors ("seaside settlers").

Arctic Circle

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The few expeditions to penetrate much beyond the Arctic Circle in this era added only small islands, such as Novaya Zemlya (11th century) and Spitzbergen (1596), though since these were often surrounded by pack-ice, their northern limits were not so clear.
The Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America, and Greenland.