Arctocyonidae

arctocyonidsarctocyonidArctocyoninae
Arctocyonidae (from Greek arktos kyôn, "bear/dog-like") has been defined as an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals with more than 20 genera.wikipedia
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Creodonta

creodontcreodontscreodine
Arctocyonids were early defined as a family of creodonts (early predators), then reassigned to the condylarths (primitive plant-eaters, now understood as a wastebasket taxon).
he expanded the term to include Miacidae, Arctocyonidae, Leptictidae (now Pseudorhyncocyonidae), Oxyaenidae, Ambloctonidae and Mesonychidae.

Mentoclaenodon

The family was expanded to include a wide variety of genera, including Arctocyon (known as/similar to Claenodon in North America), Arctocyonides, Landenodon, and Mentoclaenodon, found in the late Paleocene layers of Cernay, France. Mentoclaenodon was, judging from the scarce material available on the genus, larger than the other two large genera and tended to develop long canines similar to early big cats.
Mentoclaenodon is an extinct genus of arctocyonid ungulate mammals.

Condylarth

CondylarthracondylarthsCondylarthra indet.
Arctocyonids were early defined as a family of creodonts (early predators), then reassigned to the condylarths (primitive plant-eaters, now understood as a wastebasket taxon).

Ungulate

ungulatesunguligradeEuungulata
More recently, these animals have been thought to be the ancestors of the orders Mesonychia and Cetartiodactyla, although some morphological studies have suggested that Arctocyonidae is also a wastebasket taxon for basal ungulates, and is in fact polyphyletic. This robust, bear-sized animal was a plantigrade ungulate with short limbs; its feet had claws and it had a long tail.
The artiodactyls are thought to have evolved from a small group of condylarths, Arctocyonidae, which were unspecialized, superficially raccoon-like to bear-like omnivores from the Early Paleocene

Arctocyon

The family was expanded to include a wide variety of genera, including Arctocyon (known as/similar to Claenodon in North America), Arctocyonides, Landenodon, and Mentoclaenodon, found in the late Paleocene layers of Cernay, France.

Mesonychid

MesonychiaMesonychidsmesonychian
More recently, these animals have been thought to be the ancestors of the orders Mesonychia and Cetartiodactyla, although some morphological studies have suggested that Arctocyonidae is also a wastebasket taxon for basal ungulates, and is in fact polyphyletic.
A recent study found mesonychians to be basal euungulates most closely related to the "arctocyonids" Mimotricentes, Deuterogonodon and Chriacus.

Chriacus

Chriacus calenancusChriacus oconostotae
A near-complete skeleton of the North American Chriacus, which in recent analysis nests with the palaeoryctidans near the origin of pangolins, has been found in Wyoming.

Mesonychidae

mesonychidmesonychids
* Mesonychidae
They were once viewed as primitive carnivores, like the Paleocene family Arctocyonidae, and their diet probably included meat and fish.

Arktos

Arctocyonidae (from Greek arktos kyôn, "bear/dog-like") has been defined as an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals with more than 20 genera.

Family (biology)

familyfamiliessubfamily
Arctocyonidae (from Greek arktos kyôn, "bear/dog-like") has been defined as an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals with more than 20 genera.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
Arctocyonidae (from Greek arktos kyôn, "bear/dog-like") has been defined as an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals with more than 20 genera.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
Arctocyonidae (from Greek arktos kyôn, "bear/dog-like") has been defined as an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals with more than 20 genera.

Paleocene

PalaeoceneLate PaleocenePaleocene epoch
Animals assigned to this family were most abundant during the Paleocene, but extant from the late Cretaceous to the early Eocene.

Cretaceous

Cretaceous PeriodMiddle CretaceousEarly Cretaceous
Animals assigned to this family were most abundant during the Paleocene, but extant from the late Cretaceous to the early Eocene.

Eocene

Late EoceneMiddle EoceneEocene Epoch
Animals assigned to this family were most abundant during the Paleocene, but extant from the late Cretaceous to the early Eocene.

Wastebasket taxon

wastebin taxonwastebin genuswastebasket taxa
Arctocyonids were early defined as a family of creodonts (early predators), then reassigned to the condylarths (primitive plant-eaters, now understood as a wastebasket taxon).

Even-toed ungulate

artiodactyleven-toed ungulatesCetartiodactyla
More recently, these animals have been thought to be the ancestors of the orders Mesonychia and Cetartiodactyla, although some morphological studies have suggested that Arctocyonidae is also a wastebasket taxon for basal ungulates, and is in fact polyphyletic.

Cernay-lès-Reims

CernayCernay-les-Reims
The family was expanded to include a wide variety of genera, including Arctocyon (known as/similar to Claenodon in North America), Arctocyonides, Landenodon, and Mentoclaenodon, found in the late Paleocene layers of Cernay, France.

Raccoon

raccoonsProcyon lotorCommon raccoon
This small raccoon-like animal had powerful limb muscles and a long, robust, and maybe prehensile tail.

Plantigrade

plantigrade locomotionsemiplantigradeflat-footed
This robust, bear-sized animal was a plantigrade ungulate with short limbs; its feet had claws and it had a long tail.

Sagittal crest

crestcrestssagittal
It had a long skull equipped with a large sagittal crest and large canines, especially the lower ones.

Molar (tooth)

molarmolarsmolar teeth
It had low-crowned, bunodont molars (i.e. teeth with rounded cusps) similar to modern bears, and it is assumed that they had a similar omnivorous diet.

Big cat

big catscatlarge cat
Mentoclaenodon was, judging from the scarce material available on the genus, larger than the other two large genera and tended to develop long canines similar to early big cats.

Incertae sedis

uncertain placementincertae cedisuncertain generic placement