Ardashir I

ArdashirArdeshir IArdashir I of PersiaArdaxšir IArdeshirArdašērArdashir's raid of Mesopotamia 230-232 ADArdashîr BâbgânArdaširArdeshir Babakan
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭥𐭲𐭧𐭱𐭲𐭥, Modern Persian: اردشیر بابکان, '), also known as Ardashir the Unifier''' (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.wikipedia
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Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭥𐭲𐭧𐭱𐭲𐭥, Modern Persian: اردشیر بابکان, '), also known as Ardashir the Unifier''' (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V.

Parthian Empire

ParthianParthiansArsacid
After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus IV on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty.
Frequent civil wars between Parthian contenders to the throne proved more dangerous to the Empire's stability than foreign invasion, and Parthian power evaporated when Ardashir I, ruler of Istakhr in Persis, revolted against the Arsacids and killed their last ruler, Artabanus IV, in 224 AD.

Iran (word)

IranĒrānEranshahr
Afterwards, Ardashir called himself "shahanshah" and began conquering the land that he called Iran.
The word ērān is first attested in the inscriptions that accompany the investiture relief of Ardashir I (r. 224–242) at Naqsh-e Rustam.

Pabag

PapakBabakPāpag
According to Al-Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings, Ardashir was son of Papak, son of Sasan.
He was the father (or stepfather) of Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Empire.

Shahnameh

ShahnamaShahnameShāhnāmeh
Another narrative that exists in Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan and Ferdowsi's Shahnameh also states it says that Ardashir was born from the marriage of Sasan, a descendant of Darius III, with the daughter of Papak, a local governor in Pars.
Many other Pahlavi sources were used in composing the epic, prominent being the Kārnāmag-ī Ardaxšīr-ī Pābagān, which was originally written during the late Sassanid era and gave accounts of how Ardashir I came to power which, because of its historical proximity, is thought to be highly accurate.

Fars Province

FarsParsFārs
Another narrative that exists in Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan and Ferdowsi's Shahnameh also states it says that Ardashir was born from the marriage of Sasan, a descendant of Darius III, with the daughter of Papak, a local governor in Pars.
It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur.

Sasan

Sassan
According to Al-Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings, Ardashir was son of Papak, son of Sasan.
There are many slightly different stories concerning Sasan and his relation to Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Empire.

History of Iran

PersiaIranian historyPersian
The claim of the legitimacy of his reign as a rightful newcomer from the line of the mythical Iranian shahs and the propagations attributed to Ardashir against the legitimacy and role of the Parthians in the Iranian history sequence show the valuable place that the Achaemenid legacy had in the minds of the first Sasanian shahanshahs; though the current belief is that the Sasanians did not know much about the Achaemenids and their status.
The first shah of the Sasanian Empire, Ardashir I, started reforming the country economically and militarily.

Avesta

Zend AvestaYounger AvestaAvestas
The word "Iran" was previously used in Avesta and as "the name of the mythical land of the Aryans".
In that story, credit for collation and recension is given to the early Sasanian-era priest Tansar (high priest under Ardashir I, r. 224–242, and Shapur I, r 240/242–272), who had the scattered works collected, and of which he approved only a part as authoritative (Dk 3C, 4D, 4E).

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
The claim of the legitimacy of his reign as a rightful newcomer from the line of the mythical Iranian shahs and the propagations attributed to Ardashir against the legitimacy and role of the Parthians in the Iranian history sequence show the valuable place that the Achaemenid legacy had in the minds of the first Sasanian shahanshahs; though the current belief is that the Sasanians did not know much about the Achaemenids and their status. Three of Achaemenid kings of kings and four of the local Shahs of Pars—known as Frataraka and Kings of Persis—were named Ardashir, and Ardashir I has been Ardashir V in the chain of local Shahs.
However, six centuries later Ardeshir I, founder of the second Persian Empire, would consider himself Artaxerxes' successor, a grand testimony to the importance of Artaxerxes to the Persian psyche.

Istakhr

EstakhrStaxrEstaxr
According to Al-Tabari's report, Ardashir was born in the outskirts of Istakhr, Pars.
In 224, Ardashir V of Persis founded the Sasanian Empire and became regnally known as Ardashir I ((r.

Shapur I

ShapurShapour Iking
The word "Sasa" is written on coins found in Taxila; it is probable to be related to "Sasan", since the symbols on the mentioned coins are similar to the coins of Shapur I.
Shapur was the son of Ardashir I (r. 224–242 [died 242]), the founder of the Sasanian dynasty and whom Shapur succeeded.

Letter of Tansar

TansarNāma-ye Tansar
The Letter of Tansar is written in the book.
The Letter of Tansar was a 6th-century Sassanid propaganda instrument that portrayed the preceding Arsacid period as morally corrupt and heretical (to Zoroastrianism), and presented the first Sassanid dynast Ardashir I as having "restored" the faith to a "firm foundation."

Naqsh-e Rajab

Naghsh-e Rajab
In order to remark his victories, Ardashir carved petroglyphs in Firuzabad (the city of Gor or Ardashir-Khwarrah), Naqsh-e Rajab and Naqsh-e Rustam.
One of the carvings is the investiture inscription of Ardeshir I (ruled in 226-241 CE), the founder of the dynasty.

Kings of Persis

King of PersisPersis
He was also Ardashir V of the Kings of Persis, until he founded the new empire. Three of Achaemenid kings of kings and four of the local Shahs of Pars—known as Frataraka and Kings of Persis—were named Ardashir, and Ardashir I has been Ardashir V in the chain of local Shahs.
Šābuhr's brother and successor, Ardaxšir (Artaxerxes) V, defeated the last legitimate Parthian king, Artabanos V in 224 CE, and was crowned at Ctesiphon as Ardaxšir I (Ardashir I), šāhanšāh ī Ērān, becoming the first king of the new Sasanian Empire.

Frataraka

FratarakasFratarakā dynasty
Three of Achaemenid kings of kings and four of the local Shahs of Pars—known as Frataraka and Kings of Persis—were named Ardashir, and Ardashir I has been Ardashir V in the chain of local Shahs.
Šābuhr's brother and successor, Ardaxšir (Artaxerxes) V, defeated the last legitimate Parthian king, Artabanos V in 224 CE, and was crowned at Ctesiphon as Ardaxšir I (Ardashir I), šāhanšāh ī Ērān, becoming the first king of the new Sasanian Empire.

Ctesiphon

Seleucia-CtesiphonSelucia-CtesiphonAl-Madain
Although Agathias lived during the time of Khosrow I, due to his access to the royal yearbooks in Ctesiphon archives, his history book is one of the main sources.
Severus Alexander advanced towards Ctesiphon in 233, but as corroborated by Herodian, his armies suffered a humiliating defeat against Ardashir I.

Al-Masudi

al-Mas'udiMasudiAbu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī
Al-Masudi's The Meadows of Gold is another source about the Sasanian history.
He was much clearer on the more recent dynasties and his estimation of the time between Alexander the Great and Ardashir is much more accurately depicted than it is in al-Tabari.

Kerman

KirmanSultanate of KermanKerman, Iran
In order to consolidate his power, Ardashir killed some of the important figures in Darabgard; then he invaded Kerman and took it too and took control of whole Pars, including the Persian Gulf shores.
Kerman was founded as a defensive outpost, with the name Veh-Ardashir, by Ardashir I, founder of the Sasanian Empire, in the 3rd century AD.

King of Kings

RajadhirajaQueen of KingsShahanshah
After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus IV on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty. Three of Achaemenid kings of kings and four of the local Shahs of Pars—known as Frataraka and Kings of Persis—were named Ardashir, and Ardashir I has been Ardashir V in the chain of local Shahs.
The title was rendered as šāhān šāh in Middle Persian and Parthian and remained in consistent use until the ruling Arsacids were supplanted by the Sasanian dynasty of Ardashir I, creating the Sasanian Empire.

Khuzestan Province

KhuzestanKhuzistanKhūzestān Province
After Ardashir killed and terminated Shadh-Shapur, the governor of Spahan, after fighting him, headed towards Khuzestan and killed the governor of Susa too and added his domain to the lands under his rule.
During a short spell in the Sasanian era, the capital of the province was moved to its geographical center, where the river town of Hormuz-Ardasher, founded over the foundation of the ancient Hoorpahir by Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Dynasty in the 3rd century CE.

Palace of Ardashir

Palace of Ardeshir
At that time, Ardashir constructed a palace and fire temple in Gor (current Firuzabad) that its ruins still remain and is called the Palace of Ardashir.
Built in AD 224 by King Ardashir I of the Sassanian Empire, it is located two kilometers (1.2 miles) north of the ancient city of Gor, i.e. the old city of Artakhsher Khwarah/Khor Adashir/Gor Adesheer (Glory of [king] Ardasher) in Pars, in ancient Persia (Iran).

Gochihr

Gōčehr
Al-Tabari continues that afterward, Papak overthrew the local Persian shah named Gochihr and appointed his son, Shapur, instead of him.
He was killed in 205/6 by the Persian prince Papak at the urging of his son Ardashir I, who would later establish the Sasanian Empire.

Artabanus IV of Parthia

Artabanus IVArtabanus VArtabanus V of Parthia
After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus IV on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty.

Khvarenah

Khwarenahfarrxvarənah
He tried to show himself as a worshiper of Mazda related to god and possessing khvarenah.
The Kar-namag i Ardashir, a collection of hagiographic legends related to Ardashir, the founder of the Sassanid empire, includes (4.11.16 and 4.11.22-23) a tale in which Ardashir – who at that point in the story is still a vassal of the Arsacid Parthians – escapes from the court of the last Arsacid king, Ardavan.