Areal feature

arealareal featuresareal changeareal diffusionareal influenceareal influencesareal linguisticsareal typologyeasily borrowedareal changes
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.wikipedia
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Sprachbund

linguistic arealanguage areaareal
In some areas with high linguistic diversity, a number of areal features have spread across a set of languages to form a sprachbund (also known as a linguistic area, convergence area or diffusion area).
Areal features are common features of a group of languages in a sprachbund.

Balkan sprachbund

Balkan language areaBalkanBalkan conditionals
Some examples are the Balkan sprachbund, the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, and the languages of the Indian subcontinent.
The Balkan Sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.

Language family

language familiesfamilylanguage group
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
It has been asserted, for example, that many of the more striking features shared by Italic languages (Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, etc.) might well be "areal features".

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
Postposed article, avoidance of the infinitive, merging of genitive and dative, and superessive number formation in some languages of the Balkans.
In addition to the areal correlations, there also seems to be at least one correlation with morphological typology: isolating languages appear to favor no or non-obligatory plural marking.

Languages of the Caucasus

CaucasianCaucasian languagesCaucasian language
The use of ejective and aspirated consonants in the languages of the Caucasus.
The autochthonous languages of the Caucasus share some areal features, such as the presence of ejective consonants and a highly agglutinative structure, and, with the sole exception of Mingrelian, all of them exhibit a greater or lesser degree of ergativity.

Centum and satem languages

satemcentumsatem language
Possibly the Satem sound change.
Consequently, since the early 20th century at least, the centum–satem isogloss has been considered an early areal phenomenon rather than a true phylogenetic division of daughter languages.

Dravidian languages

DravidianDravidian languageSouthern
Retroflex consonants in the Burushaski, Nuristani, Dravidian, Munda, and Indo-Aryan families of the Indian subcontinent.
Nonetheless, although there are no readily detectable genealogical connections, Dravidian shares strong areal features with the Indo-Aryan languages, which have been attributed to a substratum influence from Dravidian.

Wave model

wave theorywaves Wave model of language change
Genetic relationships are represented in the family tree model of language change, and areal relationships are represented in the wave model.
During the 20th century, the wave model has had little acceptance as a model for language change overall, except for certain cases, such as the study of dialect continua and areal phenomena; it has recently gained more popularity among historical linguists, due to the shortcomings of the Tree model.

Comparative method

comparativesound correspondencecomparative reconstruction
Comparative method
Borrowing on a larger scale occurs in areal diffusion, when features are adopted by contiguous languages over a geographical area.

Language contact

contact languagecontactcontact linguistics
Language contact
Areal feature

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.

Genetic relationship (linguistics)

genetic relationshipgeneticgenetically related
Resemblances between two or more languages (whether in typology or in vocabulary) can be due to genetic relation (descent from a common ancestor language), to borrowing between languages, to retention of features when a population adopts a new language, or simply to chance.

Loanword

loanwordsloan wordborrowed
Resemblances between two or more languages (whether in typology or in vocabulary) can be due to genetic relation (descent from a common ancestor language), to borrowing between languages, to retention of features when a population adopts a new language, or simply to chance.

Stratum (linguistics)

substratumsubstratesuperstrate
Resemblances between two or more languages (whether in typology or in vocabulary) can be due to genetic relation (descent from a common ancestor language), to borrowing between languages, to retention of features when a population adopts a new language, or simply to chance.

Edward Sapir

SapirSapir, EdwardSapir tradition
Edward Sapir notably used evidence of contact and diffusion as a negative tool for genetic reconstruction, treating it as a subject in its own right only at the end of his career (e.g., for the influence of Tibetan on Tocharian).

Tibetic languages

TibetanTibeticTibetan language
Edward Sapir notably used evidence of contact and diffusion as a negative tool for genetic reconstruction, treating it as a subject in its own right only at the end of his career (e.g., for the influence of Tibetan on Tocharian).

Tocharian languages

TocharianToch.Tocharian A
Edward Sapir notably used evidence of contact and diffusion as a negative tool for genetic reconstruction, treating it as a subject in its own right only at the end of his career (e.g., for the influence of Tibetan on Tocharian).

Tree model

familyfamily tree modelgenetic model
Genetic relationships are represented in the family tree model of language change, and areal relationships are represented in the wave model.

William Labov

LabovLabovianBill Labov
William Labov in 2007 reconciled these models in a general framework based on differences between children and adults in their language learning ability.

Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area

tone splitSinosphereareal
Some examples are the Balkan sprachbund, the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, and the languages of the Indian subcontinent.

Indian subcontinent

IndiasubcontinentIndian
Some examples are the Balkan sprachbund, the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, and the languages of the Indian subcontinent.

T–V distinction

informaltufamiliar "Du
The use of the plural pronoun as a polite word for you in much of Europe (the tu-vous distinction).

Guttural R

gutturalGuttural R in Portugueseuvular R
The spread of the guttural R from either German or French to several West European languages.

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanIndo-EuropeanPIE
The tendency to use a habeo (transitive, e.g. "I have") construction for possession in much of Europe, instead of a mihi est (to me is) construction, which is more likely the original possessive construction in Proto-Indo-European, considering the lack of a common root for "have" verbs.