A report on Arecaceae

Sawn palm stem: Palms do not form annual tree rings.
This grove of the native species Washingtonia filifera in Palm Canyon, just south of Palm Springs, California, is growing alongside a stream running through the desert.
Two Roystonea regia specimens in Kolkata, India. The characteristic crownshaft and apex shoot, or 'spear', are visible.
Silhouette of palms in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Palms in Multan, Pakistan
Various Arecaceae
A pair of young Beccariophoenix alfredii palms
Cuban royal palm
Crown shaft base of Royal palm
Arecaceae are common in Saudi Arabia
Palmyra palm fruit at Guntur, India
Man standing in front of palms in Los Angeles, California
Pritchardia affinis, a critically endangered species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands
Fruit of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera
Washingtonia robusta palms line Ocean Avenue in Santa Monica, California.
Rodeo Palms, a subdivision in Manvel, Texas
Sabal palm in the Canaveral National Seashore
Coconut flowers
Close-up of the top, Atlantic Ocean, Georgia, U.S.
Edward Hitchcock's fold-out paleontological chart in his 1840 Elementary Geology, showing the Palms as the crown of the plant tree of life, alongside Man as the crown of the animal tree of life.
Palm trees on farm blown by wind.

Family of perennial flowering plants in the monocot order Arecales.

- Arecaceae

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Coconut

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De-husked coconut fruit showing the characteristic three pores resembling a face
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific
A wa'a kaulua (double-hulled canoe) from Hawai'i. Catamarans were one of the early technological innovations of Austronesian peoples that allowed them to colonize the islands of the Indo-Pacific and introduce coconuts and other canoe plants along their migration routes.
Fossil "Cocos" zeylanica from the Miocene of New Zealand, approximately the size of a strawberry at 3.5 cm long
Coconut leaves
Coconut palm heavy with fruit
Coconut inflorescence unfurling
Palms tolerate the saline and infertile soils of laterite type in Goa, India
A coconut plantation in Efate, Vanuatu
Coconut trees on a beach in Upolu, Samoa
Coconut germinating on Punaluʻu Beach on the island of Hawaiʻi
The Pacific flying fox (Pteropus tonganus) feeding on nectar and pollen from coconut flowers in Fiji
Worker in the Philippines using a bamboo bridge network to collect sweet coconut sap from cut flower stalks for the production of lambanog, a distilled alcoholic drink
Red nata de coco in syrup from the Philippines
Macapuno preserves sold in the United States
Coconuts being sold on a street in India
Coconut trees line the beaches and corniches of Oman
Immature green coconuts sold in Bangladesh for coconut water and their soft jelly-like flesh
Soft immature coconut meat are usually eaten as is
Coconut milk, a widely used ingredient in the cuisines of regions where coconuts are native
Coconut water drink
Ubod (coconut heart of palm) from the Philippines
Bahalina, a traditional coconut wine (tubâ) from the Philippines fermented from coconut sap and mangrove bark extracts
Extracting coir, the fiber from the coconut husk, in Sri Lanka
Coconut buttons in Dongjiao Town, Hainan, China
A "coconut monkey" from Mexico, a common souvenir item carved from coconut shells
Fish curry being served in coconut shell in Thailand
Pusô, woven pouches of rice in various designs from the Philippines
Coconut trunk
Making a rug from coconut fiber
Palaspas, woven palm fronds during Palm Sunday celebrations in the Philippines
A canang, an offering of flowers, rice, and incense in woven coconut leaves from Bali, Indonesia

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos.

Monocotyledon

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Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

Allium crenulatum (Asparagales), an onion, with typical monocot perianth and parallel leaf venation
Onion slice: the cross-sectional view shows the veins that run in parallel along the length of the bulb and stem
Comparison of a monocot (grass: Poales) sprouting (left) with a dicot (right)
Yucca brevifolia (Joshua Tree: Asparagales)
Roystonea regia palm (Arecales) stems showing anomalous secondary growth in monocots, with characteristic fibrous roots
Illustrations of cotyledons by John Ray 1682, after Malpighi

Other economically important monocotyledon crops include various palms (Arecaceae), bananas and plantains (Musaceae), gingers and their relatives, turmeric and cardamom (Zingiberaceae), asparagus (Asparagaceae), pineapple (Bromeliaceae), sedges (Cyperaceae) and rushes (Juncaceae), and leeks, onion and garlic (Amaryllidaceae).

Fresh heart of palm

Heart of palm

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Fresh heart of palm
Julienned ubod (coconut heart) from the Philippines
Ubod (coconut heart) sold in the Philippines
Heart of palm being prepared in Brazil for sale

Heart of palm is a vegetable harvested from the inner core and growing bud of certain palm trees, most notably the coconut (Cocos nucifera), juçara (Euterpe edulis), açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea), palmetto (Sabal spp.), and peach palm.

Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.

Seed

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Embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve.

Embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve.

Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.
Plant ovules: Gymnosperm ovule on left, angiosperm ovule (inside ovary) on right
The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing a well-developed embryo, nutritive tissue (megagametophyte), and a bit of the surrounding seed coat
The parts of an avocado seed (a dicot), showing the seed coat and embryo
Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo: (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl
Diagram of a generalized dicot seed (1) versus a generalized monocot seed (2). A. Scutellum B. Cotyledon C. Hilum D. Plumule E. Radicle F. Endosperm
Comparison of monocotyledons and dicotyledons
Seed coat of pomegranate
A collection of various vegetable and herb seeds
Dandelion seeds are contained within achenes, which can be carried long distances by the wind.
The seed pod of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
Germinating sunflower seedlings
Microbial transmission from seed to seedling
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean or green bean) seeds are diverse in size, shape, and color.
The massive fruit of the coco de mer

The endosperm is called "horny" when the cell walls are thicker such as date and coffee, or "ruminated" if mottled, as in nutmeg, palms and Annonaceae.

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), a deciduous broad-leaved (angiosperm) tree

Tree

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Perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, usually supporting branches and leaves.

Perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, usually supporting branches and leaves.

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), a deciduous broad-leaved (angiosperm) tree
European larch (Larix decidua), a coniferous tree which is also deciduous
Diagram of secondary growth in a eudicot or coniferous tree showing idealised vertical and horizontal sections. A new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches and roots.
Tall herbaceous monocotyledonous plants such as banana lack secondary growth, but are trees under the broadest definition.
The Daintree Rainforest
Conifers in the Swabian alps
A young red pine (Pinus resinosa) with spread of roots visible, as a result of soil erosion
Buttress roots of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra)
Northern beech (Fagus sylvatica) trunk in autumn
A section of yew (Taxus baccata) showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood
Buds, leaves, flowers and fruit of oak (Quercus robur)
Buds, leaves and reproductive structures of white fir (Abies alba)
Form, leaves and reproductive structures of queen sago (Cycas circinalis)
Dormant Magnolia bud
Wind dispersed seed of elm (Ulmus), ash (Fraxinus) and maple (Acer)
Cracked thorny skin of a Aesculus tree seed
Lepidodendron, an extinct lycophyte tree
Palms and cycads as they might have appeared in the middle Tertiary
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) tapped to collect sap for maple syrup
Selling firewood at a market
Roof trusses made from softwood
Trees in art: Weeping Willow, Claude Monet, 1918
Informal upright style of bonsai on a juniper tree
People trees, by Pooktre
Recently stripped cork oak (Quercus suber)
Alleé of London plane trees (Platanus × acerifolia) in garden
Latex collecting from a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)
Yggdrasil, the World Ash of Norse mythology
The massive Bronze Sacred Tree (height 396 cm) from Sanxingdui, Shu
The General Sherman Tree, thought to be the world's largest by volume

In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees.

Bottles and a glass of palm wine

Palm wine

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Bottles and a glass of palm wine
Toddy collectors at work on Cocos nucifera palms
Tapping palm sap in East Timor
Palm wine is collected, fermented and stored in calabashes in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (c. 1990)
Toddy-tapper climbing a toddy palm in Madras, ca. 1785
A toddy tapper in the state of Telangana selling toddy (2014)
Toddy drawer in India, 1870
Lithograph of a palm wine vendor and a native KNIL soldier consuming tuak (1854)
Tuba fresca from Colima, Mexico; a non-alcoholic drink made from coconut sap derived from Philippine tubâ
Bowl for tuak drinking made from a gourd (late 19th century)
Tapping the sap of the immature flower flasks in "arènpalm" (Arenga pinnata), one of the palms used to make palm wine, in Ambon, Moluccas (1919). The wine was called toewak (Dutch), tuak or sagoweer (saguer). The fresh sap, "sugar water", was also so drunk.
Palm wine seller in Bali (1929)
Taken in Southern Leyte, Philippines where a tuba gatherer climb the coconut tree to harvest some tuba.
Sitting on the coconut palm while gathering tuba.
A young Toddy-picker climbing a palm tree to collect palm wine, visakhapatnam, India.
Palampore tapestry dipicting toddy tappers, India, 1750 CE.
Locally called "manananggot" for tuba gatherer.
Gathering tuba from the coconut tree.
Toddey tapper at work, India, ca.1862.
Toddey trapper climbing palm tree with a hanging ladder, India.
Coconut trees, and Toddy gatherers of southern India (1855)
thumb|Palmwine

Palm wine, known by several local names, is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms.

Flowering plant

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Flowering plants are plants that bear flowers and fruits, and form the clade Angiospermae, commonly called angiosperms.

Flowering plants are plants that bear flowers and fruits, and form the clade Angiospermae, commonly called angiosperms.

Chamaenerion angustifolium, also known as fireweed or rosebay willowherb, is a flowering plant in the willowherb family Onagraceae.
Cross-section of a stem of the angiosperm flax:
1. pith, 2. protoxylem, 3. xylem, 4. phloem, 5. sclerenchyma (bast fibre), 6. cortex, 7. epidermis
A collection of flowers forming an inflorescence.
From 1736, an illustration of Linnaean classification
An auxanometer, a device for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants
Monocot (left) and dicot seedlings
Fluffy flowers of Tetradenia riparia (misty plume bush)
Flowers of Malus sylvestris (crab apple)
Flowers and leaves of Senecio angulatus (creeping groundsel)
Two bees on the composite flower head of creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense
Angiosperm life cycle
The fruit of Aesculus hippocastanum, the horse chestnut tree
A poster of twelve different species of flowers of the family Asteraceae
Lupinus pilosus
Bud of a pink rose

Monocots, about 70,000 species, characterised by trimerous flowers, a single cotyledon, pollen with one pore, and usually parallel-veined leaves—for example grasses, orchids, and palms;

Date palm

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Date fruit clumps
Phoenix dactylifera trunk section. As with other members of the palm family, date palms do not produce tree rings.
Germination of date palm
Mazafati dates
Sooty mould, nymph and larval cuticle of Ommatissus lybicus - taken on date palm in Oman
Date palm stump showing the fibrous structure
A fresh date seller in Cairo, 1955
Antique date forks in rack
Sweet sap tapped from date palm in West Bengal, India
Dried date, peach, and apricot from Lahun, Fayum, Egypt. Late Middle Kingdom
Date Palm in the Coat of arms of Saudi Arabia
thumb|right|Fresh dates, clockwise from top right: crunchy, crunchy opened, soft out of skin, soft
Date seller in the old souq in Kuwait City

Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit called dates.

A block of jaggery with a US penny for size comparison

Jaggery

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Traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

Traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

A block of jaggery with a US penny for size comparison
Harvesting sugar cane without pre-burn – the abundant waste on the ground will be irrigated to release nutrients for the next crop
Jaggery preparation by heating juice in the vessel on furnace
Semisolid sugarcane juice drying in another pan for preparation of jaggery: a practice in India
Burmese jaggery at a market in Mandalay
The production of palm jaggery in Cambodia
Sugarcane jaggery in Myanmar.
Philippine sangkaka or panutsa are disc-shaped because they are traditionally made in halved coconut shells
Making Jaggery (Gur) in Punjab
Jaggery cubes
Jaggery (gur) making at small scale near sugarcane farm in Pakistan.
Boiling the sugarcane juice in large-scale jaggery (gur) making in India.
Transferring boiled sugarcane juice into vessel to dry.
Gud or jaggery: Sugarcane-derived raw sugar crystallised cubes or blocks.
Jaggery blocks, also known as gud
Gur mamra laddu sweets made from jaggery and puffed rice.
Indian Jaggery
Boiling, Myanmar.
Jaggery, Myanmar.

It is a concentrated product of cane juice and often date or palm sap without separation of the molasses and crystals, and can vary from golden brown to dark brown in colour.

Dwarf palmetto Sabal minor with a dusting of snow, Congaree National Park, South Carolina.

List of hardy palms

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Dwarf palmetto Sabal minor with a dusting of snow, Congaree National Park, South Carolina.
Windmill palms (Trachycarpus fortunei) covered with snow on Long Island
Serenoa repens
Jubaea chilensis in France
Mature Trachycarpus fortunei on Solomons Island in southern Maryland
Trachycarpus fortunei Dusted with snow, in Grand Junction, Colorado
Rhapidophyllum hystrix In Silver Spring, Maryland
Chamaerops humilis
Washingtonia robusta
Butia odorata In France
Phoenix canariensis In Melbourne, Australia
Phoenix dactylifera Planted in Morocco
Trachycarpus fortunei in Krapets
Canary Island Date Palm in southern Switzerland in central Europe

Hardy palms are any of the species of palm (Arecaceae) that are able to withstand brief periods of colder temperatures and even occasional snowfall.