Arete

aretēἀρετήArete (excellence)virtuearetaiArete (moral virtue)Aretéaretêaretaaretaic
Arete (Greek: ἀρετή), in its basic sense, means "excellence of any kind".wikipedia
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Nicomachean Ethics

EthicsEthica NicomacheaAristotle's ''Ethics
Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean is a paradigm example of his thinking.
Aristotle in turn argues that happiness is properly understood as an ongoing and stable dynamic, a way of being in action (energeia), specifically appropriate to the human "soul" (psuchē), at its most "excellent" or virtuous (virtue translates aretē in Greek).

Sophist

sophistssophistrySophism
The only story involving Arete was originally told in the 5th century BC by the sophist Prodicus, and concerns the early life of the hero Heracles.
In general, they claimed to teach arete ("excellence" or "virtue", applied to various subject areas), predominantly to young statesmen and nobility.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Plato attempted to produce a moral philosophy that incorporated this new usage, but it was in the work of Aristotle that the doctrine of arete found its fullest flowering.
To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (ēthikē aretē), often translated as moral or ethical virtue or excellence.

Praxidike

PraxidikaiPraxidicae
Arete was occasionally personified as a goddess, the sister of Homonoia (not to be confused with Harmonia), and the daughter of the goddess of justice, Praxidike.
1. Arete and Homonoia, daughters of Praxidike and Soter, sisters to Ktesios.

Hercules at the crossroads

Choice of Herculeschoose between Virtue and Vicemake a choice between Virtue and Vice
The story has become known as Hercules at the crossroads.
In Xenophon's text, Socrates tells how the young Heracles, as the hero contemplates his future, is visited by the female personifications of Vice and Virtue (Ancient Greek: Κακία and Ἀρετή; Kakía and Areté).

Virtue

virtuesvirtuouspurity
This training in arete included physical training, for which the Greeks developed the gymnasion; mental training, which included oratory, rhetoric, and basic sciences; and spiritual training, which included music and what is called virtue.
Virtue (virtus, "arete") is moral excellence.

Homonoia (mythology)

Homonoiaa goddess
Arete was occasionally personified as a goddess, the sister of Homonoia (not to be confused with Harmonia), and the daughter of the goddess of justice, Praxidike.
Her siblings were Arete (a goddess personifying virtue) and Ktesios, minor god of household.

Methodius of Olympus

MethodiusSt MethodiusSaint Methodius
This story was later used by Christian writers, such as Methodius of Olympus, Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, and Basil of Caesarea.
In the dialogue, composed with reference to Plato's Symposium, he depicts a festive meal of ten virgins in the garden of Arete, at which each of the participators extols Christian virginity and its sublime excellence.

Virtue ethics

Aretaic turnvirtue theoryvirtue
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind, character and sense of honesty.

Paideia

paideaa Greek style of learningGreek education
Arete is a significant part of the paideia of ancient Greeks: the training of the boy to manhood.
This idea is called arete.

Aretology

An aretology or aretalogy (from ancient Greek aretê, "excellence, virtue") in the strictest sense is a narrative about a divine figure's miraculous deeds.

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Valuesmotorcycle repairmanZen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values (ZAMM)
He makes a case that originally the Greeks did not distinguish between "Quality" and "Truth"—they were one and the same, arete—and that the divorce was, in fact, artificial (though needed at the time) and is now a source of much frustration and unhappiness in the world, particularly overall dissatisfaction with modern life.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Arete (Greek: ἀρετή), in its basic sense, means "excellence of any kind".

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
In its earliest appearance in Greek, this notion of excellence was ultimately bound up with the notion of the fulfillment of purpose or function: the act of living up to one's full potential.

Penelope

a figure of mythologyhis wifePenelopē
Homer applies the term of both the Greek and Trojan heroes as well as major female figures, such as Penelope, the wife of the Greek hero Odysseus.

Odysseus

UlyssesUlisseKing of Ithaca
Homer applies the term of both the Greek and Trojan heroes as well as major female figures, such as Penelope, the wife of the Greek hero Odysseus.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The Ancient Greeks applied the term to anything: for example, the excellence of a chimney, the excellence of a bull for breeding, and the excellence of a man.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Plato attempted to produce a moral philosophy that incorporated this new usage, but it was in the work of Aristotle that the doctrine of arete found its fullest flowering. This way of thinking comes first from Plato, where it can be seen in the Allegory of the Cave.

Allegory of the cave

Plato's CavePlato's allegory of the caveallegory
This way of thinking comes first from Plato, where it can be seen in the Allegory of the Cave.

Aristocracy

aristocraticaristocrataristocrats
In particular, the aristocratic class was presumed, essentially by definition, to be exemplary of arete: "The root of the word is the same as aristos, the word which shows superlative ability and superiority, and aristos was constantly used in the plural to denote the nobility."

Nobility

noblemannoblenobles
In particular, the aristocratic class was presumed, essentially by definition, to be exemplary of arete: "The root of the word is the same as aristos, the word which shows superlative ability and superiority, and aristos was constantly used in the plural to denote the nobility."

Justice

justequitycivil justice
Arete was occasionally personified as a goddess, the sister of Homonoia (not to be confused with Harmonia), and the daughter of the goddess of justice, Praxidike. By the 5th and 4th centuries BC, arete as applied to men had developed to include quieter virtues, such as dikaiosyne (justice) and sophrosyne (self-restraint).

Sophrosyne

self-controlSôphrosynè
By the 5th and 4th centuries BC, arete as applied to men had developed to include quieter virtues, such as dikaiosyne (justice) and sophrosyne (self-restraint).

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
Plato attempted to produce a moral philosophy that incorporated this new usage, but it was in the work of Aristotle that the doctrine of arete found its fullest flowering.

Homer

HomericHomeric epicsHomeric poems
The term from Homeric times onwards is not gender specific.