Aristophanes

AristofanesAristophanicOld ComedyparabasisAristophanes' Old ComedyAristophanes’AristófanesGreek Old ComedyWorks of AristophanesἈριστοφάνης
Aristophanes (, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens and a poet of Old Attic Comedy.wikipedia
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Ancient Greek comedy

New ComedycomedyMiddle Comedy
Aristophanes (, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens and a poet of Old Attic Comedy. Aristophanes was part of this transformation and he shared in the intellectual fashions of the period—the structure of his plays evolves from Old Comedy until, in his last surviving play, Wealth II, it more closely resembles New Comedy.
Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes, while Middle Comedy is largely lost, i.e. preserved only in relatively short fragments by authors such as Athenaeus of Naucratis.

The Clouds

CloudsStrepsiadesAristophanes's same-titled comedy
His powers of ridicule were feared and acknowledged by influential contemporaries; Plato singled out Aristophanes' play The Clouds as slander that contributed to the trial and subsequent condemning to death of Socrates, although other satirical playwrights had also caricatured the philosopher.
The Clouds ( Nephelai) is a Greek comedy play written by the playwright Aristophanes.

The Knights

KnightsDiscussion
It is possible that the case was argued in court, but details of the trial are not recorded and Aristophanes caricatured Cleon mercilessly in his subsequent plays, especially The Knights, the first of many plays that he directed himself. Old Comedy's emphasis on real personalities and local issues makes the plays difficult to appreciate today without the aid of scholarly commentaries—see for example articles on The Knights, The Wasps and Peace for lists of topical references.
The Knights ( Hippeîs; Attic: Ἱππῆς) was the fourth play written by Aristophanes, who is considered the master of an ancient form of drama known as Old Comedy.

Comedy

comediescomediccomedy writer
Aristophanes (, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens and a poet of Old Attic Comedy.
Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
His powers of ridicule were feared and acknowledged by influential contemporaries; Plato singled out Aristophanes' play The Clouds as slander that contributed to the trial and subsequent condemning to death of Socrates, although other satirical playwrights had also caricatured the philosopher.
Aristophanes, a playwright, is the main contemporary author to have written plays mentioning Socrates during Socrates' lifetime, though a fragment of Ion of Chios' Travel Journal provides important information about Socrates' youth.

Classical Athens

AthensAthenianAthenians
Aristophanes (, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens and a poet of Old Attic Comedy.
In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum, Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient world.

Cleon

Kleon
Aristophanes' second play, The Babylonians (now lost), was denounced by Cleon as a slander against the Athenian polis. He caricatured leading figures in the arts (notably Euripides, whose influence on his own work however he once grudgingly acknowledged), in politics (especially the populist Cleon), and in philosophy/religion (where Socrates was the most obvious target).
His contemporaries, the historian Thucydides and the comedic playwright Aristophanes, both represent him as an unscrupulous, warmongering demagogue, but both of them had strong motives to present Cleon unfavorably.

Old Comedy

comedycomedianGreek old comedy
It was conventional in Old Comedy for the Chorus to speak on behalf of the author during an address called the 'parabasis' and thus some biographical facts can be found there.
The most important Old Comic playwright is Aristophanes – whose works, with their daring political commentary and abundance of sexual innuendo, effectively define the genre today.

Playwright

dramatistplaywritingplaywrights
Aristophanes (, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens and a poet of Old Attic Comedy.
Such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts.

Euripides

EuripideanEuripedesMr. Euripides
He caricatured leading figures in the arts (notably Euripides, whose influence on his own work however he once grudgingly acknowledged), in politics (especially the populist Cleon), and in philosophy/religion (where Socrates was the most obvious target). These include not only rival comic dramatists such as Eupolis and Hermippus and predecessors such as Magnes, Crates and Cratinus, but also tragedians, notably Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, all three of whom are mentioned in e.g. The Frogs.
His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being frequently lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes.

Peace (play)

PeaceThe PeaceDer Frieden
It has been inferred from statements in The Clouds and Peace that Aristophanes was prematurely bald. Old Comedy's emphasis on real personalities and local issues makes the plays difficult to appreciate today without the aid of scholarly commentaries—see for example articles on The Knights, The Wasps and Peace for lists of topical references.
Peace ( Eirēnē) is an Athenian Old Comedy written and produced by the Greek playwright Aristophanes.

The Acharnians

AcharniansAcharnians of AristophanesChaeris
The details of the trial are unrecorded but, speaking through the hero of his third play The Acharnians (staged at the Lenaia, where there were few or no foreign dignitaries), the poet carefully distinguishes between the polis and the real targets of his acerbic wit:
The Acharnians or Acharnians (Ancient Greek: Ἀχαρνεῖς Akharneîs; Attic: Ἀχαρνῆς) is the third play — and the earliest of the eleven surviving plays — by the Athenian playwright Aristophanes.

Demagogue

demagogydemagoguerydemagogic
The day's program at the City Dionysia for example was crowded, with three tragedies and a 'satyr' play ahead of a comedy, but it is possible that many of the poorer citizens (typically the main supporters of demagogues like Cleon) occupied the festival holiday with other pursuits.
The Athenian leader Cleon is known as a notorious demagogue mainly because of three events described in the writings of Thucydides and Aristophanes.

Plutus (play)

PlutusWealthPloutos
Aristophanes was part of this transformation and he shared in the intellectual fashions of the period—the structure of his plays evolves from Old Comedy until, in his last surviving play, Wealth II, it more closely resembles New Comedy.
Plutus (, Ploutos, "Wealth") is an Ancient Greek comedy by the playwright Aristophanes, first produced in 408 BCE, revised and performed again in c. 388 BCE.

Dionysia

City DionysiaGreat DionysiaGreater Dionysia
His plays were written for production at the great dramatic festivals of Athens, the Lenaia and City Dionysia, where they were judged and awarded prizes in competition with the works of other comic dramatists.
The comic playwright Aristophanes parodied the Rural Dionysia in his play The Acharnians.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
His powers of ridicule were feared and acknowledged by influential contemporaries; Plato singled out Aristophanes' play The Clouds as slander that contributed to the trial and subsequent condemning to death of Socrates, although other satirical playwrights had also caricatured the philosopher.
In any case, Xenophon's Memorabilia and Aristophanes's The Clouds seem to present a somewhat different portrait of Socrates from the one Plato paints.

Symposium (Plato)

SymposiumThe SymposiumPlato's ''Symposium
Plato's The Symposium appears to be a useful source of biographical information about Aristophanes, but its reliability is open to doubt.
The men include the philosopher Socrates, the general and political figure Alcibiades, and the comic playwright Aristophanes.

Satyr

satyrsIsland SatyrLibyan Satyr
The day's program at the City Dionysia for example was crowded, with three tragedies and a 'satyr' play ahead of a comedy, but it is possible that many of the poorer citizens (typically the main supporters of demagogues like Cleon) occupied the festival holiday with other pursuits.
In Aristophanes's comedy Thesmophoriazusae, the tragic poet Agathon declares that a dramatist must be able to adopt the personae of his characters in order to successfully portray them on stage.

Eupolis

These include not only rival comic dramatists such as Eupolis and Hermippus and predecessors such as Magnes, Crates and Cratinus, but also tragedians, notably Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, all three of whom are mentioned in e.g. The Frogs.
The Chronicon of Eusebius of Caesarea instead places his debut in 428/427 BC and adds that Aristophanes also started producing that year.

Hesiod

HesiodicHesiodic prooemiaHesiodus
For Aristophanes' contemporaries the works of Homer and Hesiod formed the cornerstones of Hellenic history and culture.
He recalls Aristophanes in his rejection of the idealised hero of epic literature in favour of an idealised view of the farmer.

The Wasps

WaspsPhilocleonThe Wasps of Aristophanes
Old Comedy's emphasis on real personalities and local issues makes the plays difficult to appreciate today without the aid of scholarly commentaries—see for example articles on The Knights, The Wasps and Peace for lists of topical references.
The Wasps is the fourth in chronological order of the eleven surviving plays by Aristophanes, the master of an ancient genre of drama called 'Old Comedy'.

Hermippus

These include not only rival comic dramatists such as Eupolis and Hermippus and predecessors such as Magnes, Crates and Cratinus, but also tragedians, notably Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, all three of whom are mentioned in e.g. The Frogs.
He was younger than Telecleides and older than Eupolis and Aristophanes.

Cydathenaeum

KydathenaionKydathenaieus
Aristophanes (, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens and a poet of Old Attic Comedy.

Attic Greek

AtticAttic dialectClassical Attic
The language of Aristophanes' plays, and in Old Comedy generally, was valued by ancient commentators as a model of the Attic dialect.
The first extensive works of literature in Attic are the plays of the dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes dating from the 5th century BC.

Eubulus (poet)

Eubulus
It appears that a second son, Philippus, was twice victorious at the Lenaia and he could have directed some of Eubulus’ comedies.
4) appears to suggest that some of his plays were staged by Aristophanes’ son Philippus.