Aristotelianism

AristotelianAristotelian philosophyAristoteliansAristotelian traditionAristoteleanAristotelian thoughtAristotelian natural philosophyAristotelian philosopherByzantine Aristotelianismneo-Aristotelian
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.wikipedia
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Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
He was the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition.

Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
In Aristotle's time, philosophy included natural philosophy, which preceded the advent of modern science during the Scientific Revolution.
He passionately rejected both the prevailing Aristotelian philosophy and the Scholastic method of university teaching.

Avicenna

Ibn SinaIbn SīnāAbu Ali ibn Sina
In the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna and Averroes translated the works of Aristotle into Arabic and under them, along with philosophers such as Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi, Aristotelianism became a major part of early Islamic philosophy.
Greco-Roman (Mid- and Neo-Platonic, and Aristotelian) texts translated by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, astronomy, algebra, trigonometry and medicine.

Averroes

Ibn RushdAverroësIbn Roshd
In the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna and Averroes translated the works of Aristotle into Arabic and under them, along with philosophers such as Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi, Aristotelianism became a major part of early Islamic philosophy.
Averroes was a strong proponent of Aristotelianism; he attempted to restore what he considered the original teachings of Aristotle and opposed the Neoplatonist tendencies of earlier Muslim thinkers, such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna.

The Guide for the Perplexed

Guide for the PerplexedGuide of the PerplexedMoreh Nebukim
Moses Maimonides adopted Aristotelianism from the Islamic scholars and based his Guide for the Perplexed on it and that became the basis of Jewish scholastic philosophy.
The Guide for the Perplexed (, Moreh Nevukhim; دلالة الحائرين, dalālat al-ḥā’irīn, דלאל̈ת אלחאירין) is one of the three major works of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, primarily known either as Maimonides or RaMBaM . This work seeks to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Hebrew Bible theology, by finding rational explanations for many events in the text.

Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas AquinasAquinasSaint Thomas Aquinas
Scholars such as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas interpreted and systematized Aristotle's works in accordance with Catholic theology.
Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
The two main currents of early Islamic thought are Kalam which focuses on Islamic theology and Falsafa which was based on Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism.

Commentaries on Aristotle

Aristotelian commentatorcommentariesancient commentaries on Aristotle
The works of Aristotle were initially defended by the members of the Peripatetic school and later on by the Neoplatonists, who produced many commentaries on Aristotle's writings.
200) was regarded by subsequent Aristotelians among the Greeks, Latins, and Muslims, as the best interpreter of Aristotle.

Early Islamic philosophy

philosopherphilosophyearly Muslim philosophy
In the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna and Averroes translated the works of Aristotle into Arabic and under them, along with philosophers such as Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi, Aristotelianism became a major part of early Islamic philosophy.
Three speculative thinkers, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and al-Kindi, combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam.

Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg

TrendelenburgFischer–Trendelenburg debateAdolf Trendelenburg
Although this project was criticized by Trendelenburg and Brentano as non-Aristotelian, Hegel's influence is now often said to be responsible for an important Aristotelian influence upon Marx.
His own standpoint may be called a modern version of Aristotelianism.

Albertus Magnus

Albert the GreatSaint Albert the GreatSt. Albert the Great
Scholars such as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas interpreted and systematized Aristotle's works in accordance with Catholic theology.
The philosophical works, occupying the first six and the last of the 21 volumes, are generally divided according to the Aristotelian scheme of the sciences, and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works, with supplementary discussions upon contemporary topics, and occasional divergences from the opinions of the master.

After Virtue

Especially famous for helping to revive virtue ethics in his book After Virtue, MacIntyre revises Aristotelianism with the argument that the highest temporal goods, which are internal to human beings, are actualized through participation in social practices.
That background is the Enlightenment's abandonment of Aristotelianism, and in particular the Aristotelian concept of teleology.

Tradition

traditionaltraditionscustom
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
In contrast, some continental philosophers - most notably, Hans-Georg Gadamer - have attempted to rehabilitate the tradition of Aristotelianism.

Teleology

teleologicalteleologicallypurpose
After retreating under criticism from modern natural philosophers, the distinctively Aristotelian idea of teleology was transmitted through Wolff and Kant to Hegel, who applied it to history as a totality.
Historically, teleology may be identified with the philosophical tradition of Aristotelianism.

Alasdair MacIntyre

MacIntyreMacIntyre, AlasdairAlasdair C. MacIntyre
The most famous contemporary Aristotelian philosopher is Alasdair MacIntyre.
This Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition, he proposes, presents "the best theory so far," both of how things are and how we ought to act.

History of science

historian of sciencemodern sciencehistory
In Aristotle's time, philosophy included natural philosophy, which preceded the advent of modern science during the Scientific Revolution.
In the Middle East and later other Islamic areas, works such as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Epic of Kings by Ferdowsi provided evidence of political analysis, while the Islamic Aristotelians such as Avicenna and later Maimonides and Averroes, continued Aristotle's tradition of analysis and empiricism, writing commentaries on Aristotle's works.

Neoplatonism

NeoplatonicNeoplatonistNeo-Platonic
The works of Aristotle were initially defended by the members of the Peripatetic school and later on by the Neoplatonists, who produced many commentaries on Aristotle's writings.
The university maintained an active philosophical tradition of Platonism and Aristotelianism, with the former being the longest unbroken Platonic school, running for close to two millennia until the fifteenth century

Maimonides

RambamMoses MaimonidesMaimonidean
Moses Maimonides adopted Aristotelianism from the Islamic scholars and based his Guide for the Perplexed on it and that became the basis of Jewish scholastic philosophy.
His brilliant adaptation of Aristotelian thought to Biblical faith deeply impressed later Jewish thinkers, and had an unexpected immediate historical impact.

Averroism

AverroistAverroistsAverroist movement
Although his writings had only marginal impact in Islamic countries, his works would eventually have a huge impact in the Latin West, and would lead to the school of thought known as Averroism.
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian philosopher Averroes, a commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.

Al-Kindi

AlkindusAl-KindīAl Kindi
In the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna and Averroes translated the works of Aristotle into Arabic and under them, along with philosophers such as Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi, Aristotelianism became a major part of early Islamic philosophy. Al-Kindi (801–873) was the first of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world.
This is especially significant in the development of Islamic philosophy, as it portrayed the "first cause" and "unmoved mover" of Aristotelian philosophy as compatible with the concept of God according to Islamic revelation.

Fred Miller (philosopher)

Fred MillerFred D. Miller, Jr.
Other important contemporary Aristotelian theorists include Fred D. Miller, Jr. in politics and Rosalind Hursthouse in ethics.
He specializes in Aristotelian philosophy, with additional interests in political philosophy, business ethics, metaphysics, and philosophy in science fiction.

University of Constantinople

PandidakterionMagnaura SchoolUniversity
Leo the Mathematician was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Magnaura School in the mid-9th century to teach Aristotelian logic.
The university maintained an active philosophical tradition of Platonism and Aristotelianism, with the former being the longest unbroken Platonic school, running for close to two millennia until the 15th century.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
Al-Kindi (801–873) was the first of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world.
Plato's student Aristotle in turn criticized and built upon the doctrines he ascribed to Socrates and Plato, forming the foundation of Aristotelianism.

Franz Brentano

BrentanoDescriptive psychology (Brentano)Franz
Although this project was criticized by Trendelenburg and Brentano as non-Aristotelian, Hegel's influence is now often said to be responsible for an important Aristotelian influence upon Marx.

Abbasid Caliphate

AbbasidAbbasidsAbbasid dynasty
In the Abbasid Empire, many foreign works were translated into Arabic, large libraries were constructed, and scholars were welcomed.
Three speculative thinkers, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna, combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam, and Avicennism was later established as a result.