A report on Aristotelianism

Aristotle by Francesco Hayez
A medieval Arabic representation of Aristotle teaching a student.
Aristotle, holding his Ethics (detail from The School of Athens)

Philosophical tradition inspired by the work of Aristotle, usually characterized by deductive logic and an analytic inductive method in the study of natural philosophy and metaphysics.

- Aristotelianism
Aristotle by Francesco Hayez

33 related topics with Alpha

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Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle

Aristotle

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Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle
School of Aristotle in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece
Roman copy of 1st or 2nd century from original bronze by Lysippos. Louvre Museum
Plato (left) and Aristotle in Raphael's 1509 fresco, The School of Athens. Aristotle holds his Nicomachean Ethics and gestures to the earth, representing his view in immanent realism, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, indicating his Theory of Forms, and holds his Timaeus.
Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple. For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism).
Aristotle argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired – the potential made actual – by learning.
The four classical elements (fire, air, water, earth) of Empedocles and Aristotle illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed.
Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: in the case of a table, the wood used (material cause), its design (formal cause), the tools and techniques used (efficient cause), and its decorative or practical purpose (final cause).
Aristotle noted that the ground level of the Aeolian islands changed before a volcanic eruption.
Among many pioneering zoological observations, Aristotle described the reproductive hectocotyl arm of the octopus (bottom left).
Aristotle inferred growth laws from his observations on animals, including that brood size decreases with body mass, whereas gestation period increases. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: data are shown for mouse and elephant.
Aristotle recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta (the yolk sac), like a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.
Aristotle proposed a three-part structure for souls of plants, animals, and humans, making humans unique in having all three types of soul.
Senses, perception, memory, dreams, action in Aristotle's psychology. Impressions are stored in the sensorium (the heart), linked by his laws of association (similarity, contrast, and contiguity).
Aristotle's classifications of political constitutions
The Blind Oedipus Commending his Children to the Gods (1784) by Bénigne Gagneraux. In his Poetics, Aristotle uses the tragedy Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles as an example of how the perfect tragedy should be structured, with a generally good protagonist who starts the play prosperous, but loses everything through some hamartia (fault).
Frontispiece to a 1644 version of Theophrastus's Historia Plantarum, originally written around 300 BC
Islamic portrayal of Aristotle, c. 1220
Woodcut of Aristotle ridden by Phyllis by Hans Baldung, 1515
William Harvey's De Motu Cordis, 1628, showed that the blood circulated, contrary to classical era thinking.
"That most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle tutoring the future conqueror Alexander". Illustration by, 1866
First page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean Ethics in Greek and Latin
Nuremberg Chronicle anachronistically shows Aristotle in a medieval scholar's clothing. Ink and watercolour on paper, 1493
Aristotle by Justus van Gent. Oil on panel, c. 1476
Phyllis and Aristotle by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Oil on panel, 1530
Aristotle by Paolo Veronese, Biblioteka Marciana. Oil on canvas, 1560s
Aristotle and Campaspe,{{efn-ua | Compare the medieval tale of Phyllis and Alexander above.}} Alessandro Turchi (attrib.) Oil on canvas, 1713
Aristotle by Jusepe de Ribera. Oil on canvas, 1637
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer by Rembrandt. Oil on canvas, 1653
Aristotle by Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder. Oil on canvas, by 1813
Aristotle by Francesco Hayez. Oil on canvas, 1811
Roman copy of 117-138 AD of Greek original. Palermo Regional Archeology Museum
Relief of Aristotle and Plato by Luca della Robbia, Florence Cathedral, 1437–1439
Stone statue in niche, Gladstone's Library, Hawarden, Wales, 1899
Bronze statue, University of Freiburg, Germany, 1915

Taught by Plato, he was the founder of the Peripatetic school of philosophy within the Lyceum and the wider Aristotelian tradition.

Statue of Ibn Rushd in Córdoba, Spain

Averroes

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Statue of Ibn Rushd in Córdoba, Spain
Averroes in a 14th-century painting by Andrea di Bonaiuto
Averroes served various official positions in the Almohad Caliphate, whose territories are depicted in this map.
Imaginary debate between Averroes and third-century philosopher Porphyry. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century
An Arabic illustration of Aristotle teaching a student, c. 1220. Aristotle's works are the subject of extensive commentaries by Averroes.
Title page from a Latin edition of Colliget, Averroes's main work in medicine
The Long Commentary on Aristotle's On the Soul, French Manuscript, third quarter of the 13th century
6th-century Byzantine depiction of Galen (top centre) among other noted physicians
The Triumph of Saint Thomas Aquinas over Averroes by Benozzo Gozzoli, depicting Aquinas (top center), a major Averroes critic, "triumphing" over Averroes (bottom), depicted at the feet of Aquinas
Averroes, detail of the fresco The School of Athens by Raphael

Averroes was a strong proponent of Aristotelianism; he attempted to restore what he considered the original teachings of Aristotle and opposed the Neoplatonist tendencies of earlier Muslim thinkers, such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna.

An altarpiece in Ascoli Piceno, Italy,
by Carlo Crivelli (15th century)

Thomas Aquinas

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Italian Dominican friar and priest, who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism; he is known within the scholastic tradition as the Doctor Angelicus, the Doctor Communis, and the Doctor Universalis.

Italian Dominican friar and priest, who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism; he is known within the scholastic tradition as the Doctor Angelicus, the Doctor Communis, and the Doctor Universalis.

An altarpiece in Ascoli Piceno, Italy,
by Carlo Crivelli (15th century)
The Castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano
Thomas is girded by angels with a mystical belt of purity after his proof of chastity. Painting by Diego Velázquez.
Triumph of St Thomas Aquinas, "Doctor Communis", between Plato and Aristotle, Benozzo Gozzoli, 1471. Louvre, Paris.
Icon of the crucifixion speaking to Thomas Aquinas is depicted on this stained glass window in Saint Patrick Church (Columbus, Ohio).
Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas, "Doctor Angelicus", with saints and angels, Andrea di Bonaiuto, 1366. Basilica of Santa Maria Novella, fresco.
The remains of Thomas Aquinas are buried in the Church of the Jacobins in Toulouse.
St. Thomas Aquinas and the Pope
Detail of The Apotheosis of Saint Thomas Aquinas by Francisco de Zurbarán, 1631
Saint Thomas Aquinas by Luis Muñoz Lafuente
Super libros de generatione et corruptione
Super Physicam Aristotelis, 1595
Thomas Aquinas by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 1650
17th-century sculpture of Thomas Aquinas
Portrait of St. Thomas by Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra, c. 1649
A stained glass window of Thomas Aquinas in St. Joseph's Catholic Church (Central City, Kentucky)

Unlike many currents in the Catholic Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle — whom he called "the Philosopher" — and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity.

Portrait of Johann Jakob Brucker, whose six volume work Historia critica philosophiae (1742–1767) cemented the division between ancient Platonism, middle Platonism and neoplatonism.

Neoplatonism

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Philosophical and religious system, beginning with the work of Plotinus in c. 245 AD, that analyzes and teaches interpretations of the philosophy and theology of Plato, and which extended the interpretations of Plato that middle Platonists developed from 80 BC to 220 AD. The English term "neoplatonism", or "Neo-Platonism", or "Neoplatonism" comes from 18th- and 19th-century Germanic scholars who wanted to systematize history into nameable periods.

Philosophical and religious system, beginning with the work of Plotinus in c. 245 AD, that analyzes and teaches interpretations of the philosophy and theology of Plato, and which extended the interpretations of Plato that middle Platonists developed from 80 BC to 220 AD. The English term "neoplatonism", or "Neo-Platonism", or "Neoplatonism" comes from 18th- and 19th-century Germanic scholars who wanted to systematize history into nameable periods.

Portrait of Johann Jakob Brucker, whose six volume work Historia critica philosophiae (1742–1767) cemented the division between ancient Platonism, middle Platonism and neoplatonism.
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A 4th to 6th century AD lecture hall in the archaeological site Kom El Deka in Alexandria. The neoplatonic school of Alexandria was active between the 4th and 6th centuries AD.
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Modern day Viterbo, showing the 13th century Palazzo dei Papi (Palace of the Popes) that was completed around the same time the Catholic bishop William of Moerbeke and the Dominican friar and priest Thomas Aquinas were working in the city in 1268 AD.
Cornelia de Vogel, whose significant interpretation of Plato's dialogue The Sophist, showed the close connection between fundamental doctrines of Plato and neoplatonism.
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Modern day Villa Medici at Careggi where the 15th century Catholic priest Marsilio Ficino and his circle of scholars translated works by Plato and the neoplatonists Plotinus and Proclus between 1462 and 1499.
The beginning of a Latin translation of Pseudo-Dionysius' work Ecclesiastical Hierarchy from a manuscript in the Vatican Library. The neoplatonic theology of Proclus is a foundation to Pseudo-Dionysius' works on Christian theology written between 485 AD and 530 AD, now called Corpus Dionysiacum Areopagiticum (CDA).
A 12th or 13th century depiction of Michael Psellos with his student, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas, located in the Pantokratoros Monastery. Psellos is a key figure both in the history of Byzantine philosophy and in the reception of neoplatonic theology and philosophy in Constantinople.
A 1975 Egyptian postage stamp depicting the Islamic philosopher al-Kindī who with a circle of scholars translated neoplatonic works by Plotinus and Proclus into Arabic.
A statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain. Maimonides’ philosophical-theological work The Guide for the Perplexed contains many neoplatonic influences.
A 19th-century oil painting of Nicholas Copernicus by Jan Matejko in the collection of the Jagiellonian University Museum in Poland. Copernicus studied the neoplatonic philosopher Proclus and in his famous work On the Revolution of Celestial Spheres included information from Proclus' Outline of Astronomical Hypotheses and also in the same work, cited Proclus' Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements.
Part of the Latin translation of Pseudo-Dionysius' De coelesti hierarchia from a manuscript in the Vatican Library. Neoplatonic influences can be seen in De coelesti hierarchia 2.2.

Neoplatonism synthesized ideas from earlier philosophical and religious traditions, namely Platonism, Aristotelianism and Stoicism, and it is that synthesis that explains the central difference between Plato and neoplatonism.

Aristotle's School, a painting from the 1880s by Gustav Adolph Spangenberg

Peripatetic school

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School of philosophy in Ancient Greece.

School of philosophy in Ancient Greece.

Aristotle's School, a painting from the 1880s by Gustav Adolph Spangenberg
Aristotle and his disciples – Alexander, Demetrius, Theophrastus, and Strato, in an 1888 fresco in the portico of the National University of Athens

Western Europe recovered Aristotelianism from Byzantium and from Islamic sources in the Middle Ages.

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp

Avicenna

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His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.

His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp
Map of Khurasan and Transoxiana
Coin of Majd al-Dawla ((r. 997 – 1029)), the amir (ruler) of the Buyid branch of Ray
Coin of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad ((r. 1008 – 1041)), the Kakuyid ruler of Isfahan
The Mausoleum of Avicenna, Hamadan, Iran
Canons of medicine book from Avicenna, Latin translation located at UT Health of San Antonio
Skull of Avicenna, found in 1950 during construction of the new mausoleum
Inside view of the Avicenna Mausoleum, designed by Hooshang Seyhoun in 1945–1950
A monument to Avicenna in Qakh (city), Azerbaijan
Image of Avicenna on the Tajikistani somoni
The statue of Avicenna in United Nations Office in Vienna as a part of the Persian Scholars Pavilion donated by Iran

. "Whereas the name of Avicenna (Ibn Sina, died 1037) is generally listed as chronologically first among noteworthy Iranian philosophers, recent evidence has revealed previous existence of Ismaili philosophical systems with a structure no less complete than of Avicenna." and the father of early modern medicine. Sajjad H. Rizvi has called Avicenna "arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era". He was a Muslim Peripatetic philosopher influenced by Greek Aristotelian philosophy. Of the 450 works he is believed to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine.

14th-century image of a university lecture

Scholasticism

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14th-century image of a university lecture

Scholasticism was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

Al-Farabi (Alfarabi), the founder of Farabism.

Early Islamic philosophy

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Period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

Period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

Al-Farabi (Alfarabi), the founder of Farabism.
Averroes (Ibn Rushd), the founder of Averroism.

Three speculative thinkers, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and al-Kindi, combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam.

Socrates

Ethics

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Branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior".

Branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior".

Socrates
Epictetus
Jeremy Bentham
John Stuart Mill
Immanuel Kant
Photograph of Jurgen Habermas, whose theory of discourse ethics was influenced by Kantian ethics

Modern virtue ethics was popularized during the late 20th century in large part due to a revival of Aristotelianism, and as a response to G.E.M. Anscombe's "Modern Moral Philosophy".

Imaginary 18th-century depiction of Maimonides

Maimonides

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Medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

Medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

Imaginary 18th-century depiction of Maimonides
The dominion of the Almohad Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 1200
Maimonides' house in Fez, Morocco
Monument in Córdoba
Bas relief of Maimonides in the United States House of Representatives.
The Tomb of Maimonides in Tiberias
Depiction of Maimonides teaching students about the 'measure of man' in an illuminated manuscript.
The title page of The Guide for the Perplexed
Plaque of Maimonides at Rambam Medical Center, Haifa
Manuscript page by Maimonides. Judeo-Arabic language in Hebrew letters.
The original manuscript of the Commentary on the Mishnah, handwritten by Musa bin Maymun in Judeo-Arabic in a Rashi script.

Maimonides strove to reconcile Aristotelianism and science with the teachings of the Torah.