A report on Arizona and Grand Canyon

Image of the Grand Canyon and surrounding area taken from the International Space Station
The Grand Canyon from an airplane, with the Colorado River visible
La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition
Grand Canyon, Arizona, Nevada, Lake Powell to Lake Mead, June 27, 2017, Sentinel-2 true-color satellite image. Scale 1:450,000.
Mexico in 1824. Alta California is the northwesternmost state.
Diagram showing the placement, age and thickness of the rock units exposed in the Grand Canyon
Geronimo (far right) and his Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers.
Rockfalls in recent times, along with other mass wasting, have further widened the canyon
Children of Depression-era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937
Ancestral Puebloan granaries at Nankoweap Creek
Eleanor Roosevelt at the Gila River relocation center, April 23, 1943
La conquista del Colorado (2017), by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Spanish Captain García López de Cárdenas 1540 expedition
Köppen climate types of Arizona
William Bell's photograph of the Grand Canyon, taken in 1872 as part of the Wheeler expedition
The Grand Canyon
Noon rest in Marble Canyon, second Powell Expedition, 1872
View of suburban development in Scottsdale, 2006
Desert View Watchtower in 2004
A population density map of Arizona
1923-built steam locomotive No. 4960 at the Grand Canyon Depot
Extent of the Spanish language in the state of Arizona
Grand Canyon covered with snow
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley
Smoke from prescribed fires on the South Rim, as seen from Yavapai Point, April 2007.
The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac, founded in 1700
Natural fog sometimes fills the canyon, during temperature inversions
Arizona's Meteor Crater is a tourist attraction.
Grand Canyon Climate Summary Chart (NPS)
Entering Arizona on I-10 from New Mexico
A bighorn ram perched on a cliff in the Grand Canyon
The original Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix
A bighorn ewe at the Grand Canyon, 2008
Art Deco doors of the Cochise County Courthouse in Bisbee
A California condor in flight, photographed from Navajo Bridge at Marble Canyon, 2008. Wild condors are numbered to aid wildlife researchers. As of April 2009, there were 172 wild California condors known.
Arizona teacher's strike and rally on April 26, 2018
Red-tailed Hawk flying at the south rim of Grand Canyon
The University of Arizona (the Mall) in Tucson
An elk searching for water at Grand Canyon National Park in 2018.
Arizona State University (a biodesign building) in Tempe
Rafters in the Grand Canyon pass one of the rapids of the (mud-)"colored" Colorado River
Northern Arizona University (The Skydome) in Flagstaff
Guano Point – a popular vantage point for tourists, situated on the West Rim of the Grand Canyon, Hualapai Indian Reservation
View of Monument Valley from John Ford's Point
Grand Canyon rescue helicopter, 1978
Standin' on the Corner Park and mural in Winslow, Arizona
Ribbon Falls, near the North Kaibab Trail, represents ground water reaching the surface.
State Farm Stadium in Glendale
David Rust, ca.1910
A spring training game between the Cubs and White Sox at HoHoKam Park
Railway Station and El Tovar Hotel, Facing WNW, Grand Canyon Village. 1994 photo, HAER
Romaine, Yuma
Fred Harvey postcard, The Towering Cliffs above Hermit Camp
Leaf, Yuma
Vishnu rock, Trail of Time, Grand Canyon
Harvesting spinach during WW2
Broccoli seed crop, Yuma
Cauliflower seed crop, WW2
Volunteer, Pine

The Grand Canyon (,, Bidááʼ Haʼaztʼiʼ Tsékooh, Southern Paiute language: Paxa’uipi, Gran Cañón or Gran Cañón del Colorado ) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.

- Grand Canyon

Located in northern Arizona, the Grand Canyon is a colorful, deep, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River.

- Arizona

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Colorado River

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One of the principal rivers (along with the Rio Grande) in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico.

One of the principal rivers (along with the Rio Grande) in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico.

Headwaters of the Colorado River in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado
Colorado River in the Grand Canyon seen from Pima Point, near Hermit's Rest
Satellite view of the Colorado River valley near Yuma, Arizona; interstate 8 runs from left to right just below center.
Colorado River as it exits the United States into Mexico beneath the San Luis Colorado-Colonia Miguel Aléman Bridge (September 2009)
The San Juan River near Mexican Hat, Utah
The Green River at Mineral Bottom, just north of Canyonlands National Park
Annual Colorado River discharge volumes at Lee's Ferry between 1895 and 2004
Map showing the Upper and Lower Colorado River Basin, and adjacent areas supplied by Colorado River water.
The Black Suspension Bridge crosses the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon at Phantom Ranch, Arizona.
Remnants of basalt flows from the Uinkaret volcanic field are seen here descending into the Grand Canyon, where they dammed the Colorado over 10 times in the past 2 million years.
Navajo woman and child, photographed by Ansel Adams, c. 1944
Pueblos and cliff dwellings such as this one in New Mexico were inhabited by people of the Colorado River basin between 2,000 and 700 years ago.
Two Mohave warriors beside the Colorado River in 1871
La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition
Coronado Sets Out to the North, by Frederic Remington, c. 1905
Lithograph of Fort Yuma, c. 1875
Marble Canyon, one of the many gorges that Powell's expedition traversed
The steamboat Mohave No. 2 at Yuma, c. 1876
John D. Lee, date and photographer unknown. He established a permanent ferry across the Colorado.
Harrison Gray Otis, president of the Colorado River Land Company
Hoover Dam releasing water in 1998
The Grand Ditch, one of the earliest water diversions of the Colorado River, is still in use today.
Hoover Dam under construction, 1934
The Imperial Dam (bottom right) diverts water into the All-American Canal (center) running towards Imperial Valley.
Glen Canyon Dam, the largest dam of the Colorado River Storage Project
The main canal of the Central Arizona Project, crossing the Sonoran Desert
Lake Mead in 2010, showing the "bathtub ring" left behind by low water levels
Heavily forested banks of the Colorado River near Topock, Arizona
The Colorado was named for the reddish color caused by its natural sediment loads, but damming the river has caused it to acquire a clear green hue as seen here in lower Glen Canyon.
A rafting party on the Colorado River

Starting in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado, it flows generally southwest across the Colorado Plateau and through the Grand Canyon before reaching Lake Mead on the Arizona–Nevada border, where it turns south toward the international border.

A map of the Colorado Plateau.

Colorado Plateau

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Physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States.

Physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States.

A map of the Colorado Plateau.
The Four Corners region and the Colorado Plateau. Click image to see state lines.
The Book Cliffs of Utah.
The Green River runs north to south from Wyoming, briefly through Colorado, and converges with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah.
MODIS satellite image of Grand Canyon, Lake Powell (black, left of center) and the Colorado Plateau. White areas are snow-capped.
The Permian through Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah that makes up much of the famous prominent rock formations in protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park. From top to bottom: rounded tan domes of the Navajo Sandstone; layered red Kayenta Formation; cliff-forming, vertically jointed, red Wingate Sandstone; slope-forming, purplish Chinle Formation; layered, lighter-red Moenkopi Formation; and white, layered Cutler Formation sandstone from the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area in Utah.
Castle Gate rock formation in Carbon County, UT.
Navajo sandstone cliffs in Zion National Park.
Sunset in Ojito Wilderness, near Albuquerque, NM
Castle Gate Power Plant near Helper, UT.

This province covers an area of 336,700 km2 (130,000 mi2) within western Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, southern and eastern Utah, northern Arizona, and a tiny fraction in the extreme southeast of Nevada.

In the southwest corner of the Colorado Plateau lies the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River.

1938 poster of the park

Grand Canyon National Park

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1938 poster of the park
Grand Canyon Quarter
Grand Canyon regional map
From Powell Point on the South Rim
Sunset at Cape Royal Point, North Rim. Wotans Throne featured.
From Toroweap Overlook on the North Rim
From Desert View on the South Rim

Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named as a national park.

The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Wonders of the World.

Southwestern United States

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Panoramic view of the southwestern United States
The Chihuahuan desert terrain mainly consists of basins broken by numerous small mountain ranges.
Saguaro cactus in the Sonoran Desert.
The Delicate Arch at Arches National Park
Four Corners Monument
Ancestral Puebloans ruins at Chaco Canyon
Map of Paleo-Indians in the American Southwest and Mexico
Oraibi pueblo
Narváez expedition (1528–36)
1846 map: Mexican Alta California (Upper California) in pink.
United States 1849–1850
United States 1850–1853
1860 Colorado Territory map
Utah Territory evolution 1850–1868
Confederate Arizona (outlined in blue)
Split of Arizona and New Mexico territories, in 1866, after small portion ceded to Nevada
The second transcontinental railroad: the "Santa Fe Route" – 1891.
Sandia Peak Ski Area, New Mexico
Map of the Southwestern United States as defined by the Learning Center of the American Southwest
The Wigwam. A dwelling used by various Native American tribes among the Southwestern US.
Fanciful drawing by Marguerite Martyn in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of October 21, 1906, headed "Passing of the Country Store in the Southwest"
A Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia)
The High Plains in Eastern New Mexico, but also located in Eastern Colorado and West Texas
Desert bighorn sheep
Sonoran Desert terrain near Tucson
Chihuahuan Desert terrain near Carlsbad
Monument Canyon, some of the high desert lands found in Colorado
Grand Canyon from the South Rim
White Sands National Park, New Mexico
Little Finland in Gold Butte National Monument, Nevada
Runningback Josh Jacobs of the Las Vegas Raiders NFL team
T. J. McFarland pitcher for the Arizona Diamondbacks professional baseball team.
1. Phoenix (also the largest MSA)
2. El Paso (5th largest MSA)
3. Las Vegas (2nd largest MSA)
4. Albuquerque (also the 4th largest MSA)
5. Tucson (3rd largest MSA)

The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona, New Mexico, and adjacent portions of California, Colorado, Nevada, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utah.

The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon.

Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park

Ancestral Puebloans

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Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park
White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument
Horseshoe Tower in the snow, Hovenweep National Monument
Map of Ancestral Pueblo and neighboring cultures
Major Ancestral Puebloan sites in the Four Corners area
Pueblo Bonito, the largest of the Chacoan Great Houses, stands at the foot of Chaco Canyon's northern rim.
Multistory dwellings at Bandelier: Rock wall foundations and beam holes and "cavates" carved into volcanic tuff remain from upper floors.
Mancos Pitcher with Black on White Geometric Designs, Ancestral Pueblo, 900–1300 AD, Brooklyn Museum
Casa Rinconada, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico
Doorways, Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Prehistoric roads and great houses in the San Juan Basin
Plan of entire Spruce Tree House from above, cut from laser scan data collected by a CyArk/National Park Service partnership
Laser scan section of the four-story Square Tower House, data collected by a CyArk/National Park Service partnership
Section view of Kiva A in Mesa Verde's Fire Temple, cut from laser scan data collected by a CyArk/National Park Service partnership. Since Fire Temple was at least partially built to conform to the dimensions of its cliff alcove, it is neither round in form nor truly subterranean like other structures defined as kivas.
Chaco Culture bowl, 11th to 13th centuries, Pueblo Alto, Chaco Canyon
Ancestral Puebloan ruins in Dark Canyon Wilderness, Utah
Pecos Glazeware bowl, Pecos National Historical Park
Boy in doorway, Balcony House, Mesa Verde National Park
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park

The Ancestral Puebloans, also known as the Anasazi, were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.

In the Southwest, mountain ranges, rivers, and most obviously, the Grand Canyon, can be significant barriers for human communities, likely reducing the frequency of contact with other groups.

Francisco Vázquez Coronado in the Plaza Mayor de Salamanca

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado

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Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from what is now Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.

Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from what is now Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.

Francisco Vázquez Coronado in the Plaza Mayor de Salamanca
The Coronado Expedition (1540–1542) from Mexico north through the future U.S. states of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Coronado Sets Out to the North (Frederic Remington, c. 1900)
The Coronado Expedition, 1540–1542 (DjVu format)
La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition.
Episode from the Conquest of America by Jan Mostaert (c. 1545), probably Vázquez de Coronado in New Mexico

His expedition marked the first European sightings of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River, among other landmarks.

On the southern side of the Huachuca Mountains he found a stream he called the Nexpa, which may have been either the Santa Cruz or the San Pedro in modern Arizona of modern maps, most likely the northward-flowing San Pedro River.

The Grand Canyon, Arizona, at the confluence of the Colorado River and Little Colorado River


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Deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic time scales.

Deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic time scales.

The Grand Canyon, Arizona, at the confluence of the Colorado River and Little Colorado River
Sumidero Canyon, Mexico
Kevo Canyon in Utsjoki, Finland
Snake River Canyon, Idaho
Fish River Canyon, Namibia
Oribi Gorge, South Africa
Itaimbezinho Canyon, Brazil
Ouimet Canyon, Ontario, Canada
Green River overlook, Canyonlands National Park, Utah, U.S.
One of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze river, China
The gorge of the Kabul River in Afghanistan
Cheddar Gorge, England
Le cirque de la Madeleine, Gorges de l'Ardèche, France
A Douro gorge on the Portugal–Spain border
Sulak Canyon in Dagestan
Buky Canyon, Ukraine
Jamison Valley, Blue Mountains National Park, Australia
Shoalhaven River Gorge, New South Wales

The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon (or Tsangpo Canyon), along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world at 5500 m. It is slightly longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States.

The Grand Canyon of northern Arizona in the United States, with an average depth of 1600 m and a volume of 4.17 e12m3, is one of the world's largest canyons.

Navajo Nation

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Native American reservation in the United States.

Native American reservation in the United States.

Map of the Navajo Nation shown within the Four Corners region of the Soutwestern United States
Aerial view looking south across Arizona's Painted Desert with part of the Navajo Reservation in the foreground
Border changes and expansions of the Navajo Reservation from 1868 to 1934
1904 photograph of a young Navajo man
, the "Window Rock"
Vice President Myron Lizer, Congressman Tom O'Halleran and President Jonathan Nez in 2020
Navajo Nation Council Chamber, a National Historic Landmark
Navajo Woman at a waterfall circa 1920
Map showing populated places on the Navajo Nation and surrounding area
Navajo. Seven riders on horseback and dog trek against background of canyon cliffs. Edward S. Curtis (1904)
Navajo girl Canyon de Chelly, (1941) Ansel Adams
The Ned A Hataałi Center at Diné College's Tsaile campus
Navajo woman and child, c. 1880–1910
Number of sheep (Dibé) present on the Navajo Nation
Sheep remain an important aspect of Navajo culture and economy.
Narbona Pass Chuska Mountains

It occupies portions of northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah; at roughly 17544500 acre, the Navajo Nation is the largest land area held by a Native American tribe in the U.S., exceeding ten U.S. states.

Situated on the Navajo Nation are Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Monument Valley, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, the Shiprock monadnock, and the eastern portion of the Grand Canyon.