Arma Christi

Instruments of the Passioninstrumentsinstruments of Christ's Passioninstruments of passioninstruments of the Passion of Christsymbols of Christ's passionsymbols of Jesus' crucifixionsymbols of the crucifixionsymbols of the Passion of Christvarious items linked to the crucifixion
Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion, are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion in Christian symbolism and art.wikipedia
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Holy Sponge

sponge
Relics claiming to be the Holy Lance, Holy Sponge, Holy Chalice and nails from the cross were all venerated well before 1000, and were to proliferate in later centuries.
The Holy Sponge is one of the Instruments of the Passion of Jesus Christ.

Crown of thorns

crowned with thornsCrowning with Thornscrowns of thorns
It was one of the instruments of the Passion, employed by Jesus' captors both to cause him pain and to mock his claim of authority.

Holy Nail

Holy NailsnailsNail (relic)
Relics claiming to be the Holy Lance, Holy Sponge, Holy Chalice and nails from the cross were all venerated well before 1000, and were to proliferate in later centuries.
In Christian symbolism and art they figure among the Arma Christi or Instruments of the Passion, the objects associated with the Passion of Jesus.

Andachtsbilder

Andachtsbilddevotional imagedevotional images
In art the Instruments either surrounded an image of Christ in andachtsbilder subjects such as the Man of Sorrows, or might appear by themselves - often the image of Christ's face on the Veil of Veronica was the focal point of the image.
The term is especially used of Northern Gothic art around the 14th and 15th centuries, when new subjects such as the Pietà, Pensive Christ, Man of Sorrows, Arma Christi, Veil of Veronica, the severed head of John the Baptist, and the Virgin of Sorrows became extremely popular.

Passion of Jesus

PassionPassion of Christthe Passion
Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion, are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion in Christian symbolism and art.
The Arma Christi, or "Instruments of the Passion" are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion, such as the cross, the Crown of Thorns and the Spear of Longinus.

Flagellation of Christ

FlagellationScourging at the Pillarflogged
The column to which Christ is normally tied, and the rope, scourge, whip or birch are elements in the Arma Christi.

Veil of Veronica

veilVeronicaVeronica's Veil
In art the Instruments either surrounded an image of Christ in andachtsbilder subjects such as the Man of Sorrows, or might appear by themselves - often the image of Christ's face on the Veil of Veronica was the focal point of the image.
It is also at this point that other depictions of the image change to include a crown of thorns, blood, and the expression of a man in pain, and the image became very common throughout Catholic Europe, forming part of the Arma Christi, and with the meeting of Jesus and Veronica becoming one of the Stations of the Cross.

Man of Sorrows

SchmerzensmannImago PietatisMan of Sorrow
In art the Instruments either surrounded an image of Christ in andachtsbilder subjects such as the Man of Sorrows, or might appear by themselves - often the image of Christ's face on the Veil of Veronica was the focal point of the image. Typically they surround either a cross or a figure of Christ of the Man of Sorrows type, either placed around the composition, or held by angels.
Other elements that were sometimes included, in distinct sub-forms of the image, included the Arma Christi or "Instruments of the Passion", the cross, a chalice into which blood poured from Christ's side or other wounds (giving an emphasis on the Eucharist), angels to hold these objects or support a slumped Christ himself (Meister Francke shows both roles below), and mourners or worshippers.

Christian symbolism

Christian symbolsChristian symbolsymbolism
Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion, are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion in Christian symbolism and art.

Holy Lance

Spear of DestinyLance of Longinuslance
Relics claiming to be the Holy Lance, Holy Sponge, Holy Chalice and nails from the cross were all venerated well before 1000, and were to proliferate in later centuries.

True Cross

Holy CrossCrossLignum Crucis
Relics of the most important items had a long history, dating back to the Empress Helena's discovery of the True Cross in the early 4th century.

Attributed arms

attributedarmsArms were attributed
Notable arms attributed to biblical figures include the arms of Jesus based on the instruments of the Passion, and the shield of the Trinity.

Relics associated with Jesus

Relics attributed to JesusRelicsrelic
Relics claiming to be the Holy Lance, Holy Sponge, Holy Chalice and nails from the cross were all venerated well before 1000, and were to proliferate in later centuries.
Part of the relics are included in the so-called Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion.

Five Holy Wounds

Holy WoundsFive Woundsfive wounds of Christ
This form became a common feature of single iconic figures of Jesus and subjects such as the Last Judgement (where Bamberg Cathedral has an early example of about 1235), Christ in Majesty, the Man of Sorrows and Christ with the Arma Christi, and was used to emphasize Christ's suffering as well as the fact of his Resurrection.

Thirty pieces of silver

30 pieces of silverblood moneythirty silver coins
As one of the "Instruments of the Passion" the Thirty Pieces by themselves often feature in groups of the Instruments, especially in the late Middle Ages, although they are one of the less commonly chosen elements of the group.

Hetoimasia

empty thronePreparation of the Throneetimasia
In Eastern Orthodox art they are often on or around the Hetoimasia or "empty throne" of judgement.
In later versions two of the instruments of the Passion, the Spear and sponge on a stick, stand behind or beside the throne, or are held by angels.

Ponte Sant'Angelo

Pons AeliusBridge of Hadrianbridge of Sant'Angelo
Bernini's program, one of his last large projects, called for ten angels holding instruments of the Passion: he personally only finished the two originals of the Angel with the Superscription "I.N.R.I." and the Angel with the Crown of Thorns, but these were kept by Clement IX for his own pleasure.

Jesus

Jesus ChristChristJesus of Nazareth
Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion, are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion in Christian symbolism and art.

Christian art

ChristianbiblicalReligious Painting
Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion, are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion in Christian symbolism and art.

Coat of arms

armscoats of armscoat-of-arms
They are seen as arms in the sense of heraldry, and also as the weapons Christ used to achieve his conquest over Satan.

Heraldry

heraldicheraldistarms
They are seen as arms in the sense of heraldry, and also as the weapons Christ used to achieve his conquest over Satan.

Satan

the DevilDevilLucifer
They are seen as arms in the sense of heraldry, and also as the weapons Christ used to achieve his conquest over Satan.

Late Middle Ages

late medievallate medieval periodlate mediaeval
There is a group, at a maximum of about 20 items, which are frequently used in Christian art, especially in the Late Middle Ages.