Armenia

ArmenianRepublic of ArmeniaARMHayastanArmenian RepublicArmenoAMArmenian descentArmenian state Armenia
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.wikipedia
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Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.

Georgia (country)

GeorgiaGeorgianRepublic of Georgia
on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan

Republic of AzerbaijanAzerbaijan RepublicAZE
on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south.

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

NakhchivanNakhichevanNakhichevan Autonomous Republic
on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, ) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan, The region covers 5500 km2 with a population of 414,900, bordering Armenia (border 221 km) to the east and north, Iran (border 179 km) to the south and west, and Turkey (border 8 km) to the northwest.

Republic of Artsakh

ArtsakhNagorno-Karabakh RepublicNagorno-Karabakh
on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
Artsakh controls most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and some of the surrounding area, giving it a border with Armenia to the west and Iran to the south.

Urartu

UrartianUrartiansKingdom of Urartu
Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia.
The written language that the kingdom's political elite used is referred to as Urartian, which appears in cuneiform inscriptions in Armenia and eastern Turkey.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Its strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria (under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627 BC, the boundaries of Assyria reached as far as Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains), Medes, Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and the Russians.
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.

Armenian language

ArmenianArmenian-languagearm
The original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք (Hayk’), however it is currently rarely used.
It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh.

Armenians

ArmenianArmenian peopleArmenian descent
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene (Movsis Khorenatsi), defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.
Armenians constitute the main population of Armenia and the de facto independent Artsakh.

Movses Khorenatsi

Moses of ChoreneMoses of KhoreneKhorenatsi
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene (Movsis Khorenatsi), defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.
410–490s AD; Մովսես Խորենացի, also written as Movses Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.

Ararat, Armenia

AraratDavaluArarat town
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene (Movsis Khorenatsi), defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.
Ararat is a town and urban municipal community in the Ararat Province of Armenia, located on the Yerevan-Nakhchivan highway, 42 km southeast of the capital Yerevan and 19 km south of the provincial centre Artashat.

First Republic of Armenia

ArmeniaDemocratic Republic of ArmeniaRepublic of Armenia
In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the republic regained its independence as the current Republic of Armenia in 1991.

Yerevan

ErivanYerevan, ArmeniaErevan
A large cuneiform lapidary inscription found in Yerevan established that the modern capital of Armenia was founded in the summer of 782 BC by King Argishti I.
Yerevan (, ; Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

Mount Ararat

AraratMt. AraratGreater Ararat
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat.
Mount Ararat forms a near-quadripoint between Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran.

Old Persian

PersianOld Persian languageancient Persian
The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription (515 BC) as Armina.
Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription (dated to 525 BCE).

Republics of the Soviet Union

Soviet republicsSoviet republicunion republic
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Its strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria (under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627 BC, the boundaries of Assyria reached as far as Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains), Medes, Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and the Russians.
Eventually, the Persians were obliged to withdraw all armed forces and return Sassanid-ruled Egypt, the Levant and whatever imperial territories of Mesopotamia and Armenia were in Roman hands at the time of an earlier peace treaty in c. 595.

-stan

-stān-istanEstan
The contemporary name Հայաստան (Hayastan) became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan (place).. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi, Koryun, and Sebeos.

Armenian Apostolic Church

Armenian ApostolicArmenian ChurchArmenian
Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.
In so doing, it reveals the divergent forms being practiced in Armenia, which have strong echoes of old East Syriac Rite.

Armenian calendar

Armenian EraArmeniaArmenian summer
The country used the solar Armenian calendar, which consisted of 12 months.
The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia.

Satrapy of Armenia

Orontid ArmeniaArmeniaSatrap of Armenia
Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia.
The Orontid Dynasty, or known by their native name, Eruandid or Yervanduni, was a hereditary dynasty of ancient Armenia, and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).

Safavid dynasty

SafavidSafavid EmpireSafavids
Its strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria (under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627 BC, the boundaries of Assyria reached as far as Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains), Medes, Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and the Russians.
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Areni-1 shoe

shoethe world's earliest known leather shoeearliest known shoe
Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe, skirt, and wine-producing facility.
The Areni-1 shoe is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia.

Vahagn

Vahakn
It particularly focused on the worship of Mithra and also included a pantheon of gods such as Aramazd, Vahagn, Anahit, and Astghik.
Vahagn Vishapakagh (Vahagn the Dragon Reaper) or Vahakn was a god of fire, thunder and war worshiped anciently in Armenia.