Armenian alphabet

ArmenianArmenian scriptՓԱՀՈՕԲԵԷ
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր, Hayots' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն, Hayots' aybuben; Eastern Armenian: ; Western Armenian: ) is an alphabetic writing system used to write Armenian.wikipedia
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Armenian language

ArmenianArmenian:Arm.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր, Hayots' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն, Hayots' aybuben; Eastern Armenian: ; Western Armenian: ) is an alphabetic writing system used to write Armenian.
Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Mesrop Mashtots

Saint Mesrob MashdotsMashtotsMesrob
It was developed around 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader. The Armenian alphabet was introduced by Mesrop Mashtots and Isaac of Armenia (Sahak Partev) in 405 CE. Medieval Armenian sources also claim that Mashtots invented the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets around the same time.
He is best known for inventing the Armenian alphabet c.

Classical Armenian orthography

classicalclassical orthographyTAO
Those outside of the Soviet sphere (including all Western Armenians as well as Eastern Armenians in Iran) have rejected the reformed spellings, and continue to use the traditional Armenian orthography.
In the Armenian diaspora, some linguists and politicians allege political motives behind the reform of the Armenian alphabet.

Armenian numerals

Armenian numeralNumerical valueŽĒ
Armenian numerals
The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system created using the majuscules (uppercase letters) of the Armenian alphabet.

Quotation mark

quotation marksdouble quotes
[ « » ] The čakertner are used as ordinary quotation marks and they are placed like French guillemets: just above the baseline (preferably vertically centered in the middle of the x-height of Armenian lowercase letters. The computer-induced use of English-style single or double quotes (vertical, diagonal or curly forms, placed above the baseline near the M-height of uppercase or tall lowercase letters and at the same level as accents) is strongly discouraged in Armenian as they look too much like other – unrelated – Armenian punctuations.
Also, in other scripts, the angular quotation marks are distinguishable from other punctuation characters—the Greek breathing marks, the Armenian emphasis and apostrophe, the Arabic comma, decimal separator, thousands separator, etc. Other authors claim that the reason for this was an aesthetic one.

Alphabet

alphabeticalphabetsalphabetical
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր, Hayots' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն, Hayots' aybuben; Eastern Armenian: ; Western Armenian: ) is an alphabetic writing system used to write Armenian.
One, the ABCDE order later used in Phoenician, has continued with minor changes in Hebrew, Greek, Armenian, Gothic, Cyrillic, and Latin; the other, HMĦLQ, was used in southern Arabia and is preserved today in Ethiopic.

Question mark

????interrogation point
[ ՞ ] The hartsakan nshan is used as a question mark.
In Armenian, the question mark takes the form of an open circle and is placed over the last vowel of the question word.

Movses Khorenatsi

Moses of ChoreneKhorenatsiMovses Khorenatsi’
According to the fifth century Armenian historian Movses of Khoren, Bardesanes of Edessa (154–222 CE), who founded the Gnostic current of the Bardaisanites, went to the Armenian castle of Ani and there read the work of a pre-Christian Armenian priest named Voghyump, written in the Mithraic (Mehean or Mihrean lit. of Mihr or of Mithra – the Armenian national God of Light, Truth and the Sun) script of the Armenian temples in which, amongst other histories, an episode was noted of the Armenian King Tigranes VII (reigned from 144–161, and again 164–186 CE) erecting a monument on the tomb of his brother, the Mithraic High Priest of the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, Mazhan.
Movses identified himself as a young disciple of Mesrop Mashtots, inventor of the Armenian alphabet, and is recognized by the Armenian Apostolic Church as one of the Holy Translators.

Typographic ligature

ligatureligaturesligatured
Ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures.
The Armenian alphabet has next ligatures: և(also recognizes as letter), ﬔ, ﬕ, մն, ﬗ, ﬖ

Acute accent

acuteĺsíneadh fada
[ ՛ ] The shesht (which looks like a non-spacing acute accent) is used as an emphasis mark.
* In the Armenian script emphasis on a word is marked by an acute accent above the word's stressed vowel; it is traditionally grouped with the Armenian question and exclamation marks which are also diacritics applied to the stressed vowel.

Ottoman Turkish alphabet

Ottoman TurkishArabicscript
An American correspondent in Marash in 1864 calls the alphabet "Armeno-Turkish", describing it as consisting of 31 Armenian letters and "infinitely superior" to the Arabic or Greek alphabets for rendering Turkish.
Though Ottoman Turkish was primarily written in this script, non-Muslim Ottoman subjects sometimes wrote it in other scripts, including the Armenian, Greek, Latin and Hebrew alphabets.

Isaac of Armenia

IsaacSahakSahak Partev
The Armenian alphabet was introduced by Mesrop Mashtots and Isaac of Armenia (Sahak Partev) in 405 CE. Medieval Armenian sources also claim that Mashtots invented the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets around the same time.
To save both Isaac helped Mesrop to invent the Armenian alphabet and began to translate the Christian Bible; their translation from the Syriac Peshitta was revised by means of the Septuagint, and even, it seems, from the Hebrew text (between 410 and 430).

Vartan Pasha

For instance, the first novel to be written in Turkish in the Ottoman Empire was Vartan Pasha's 1851 Akabi Hikayesi, written in the Armenian script.
He is also notable for his novel "Akabi's Story" (Akabi Hikayesi), published in 1851 in Turkish written in the Armenian script (a not unusual practice in the 19th century), and for having published the bilingual magazine Mecmua-i Havadis, an important reference in the history of the Turkish written press.

Full stop

period.periods
[ ։ ] The verjaket (whose vertically stacked two dots look like a Latin colon) is used as the ordinary full stop, and placed at the end of the sentence (many texts in Armenian replace the verjaket by the Latin colon as the difference is almost invisible at low resolution for normal texts, but the difference may be visible in headings and titles as the dots are often thicker to match the same optical weight as vertical strokes of letters, the dots filling the common x-height of Armenian letters).
The Armenian script uses the ։ (վերջակետ, verdjaket). It looks similar to the colon.

Georgian scripts

GeorgianasomtavruliGeorgian alphabet
The Armenian alphabet was introduced by Mesrop Mashtots and Isaac of Armenia (Sahak Partev) in 405 CE. Medieval Armenian sources also claim that Mashtots invented the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets around the same time.
The alphabet was therefore most probably created between the conversion of Iberia under King Mirian III (326 or 337) and the Bir el Qutt inscriptions of 430, contemporaneously with the Armenian alphabet.

ArmSCII

ArmSCII is a character encoding developed between 1991 and 1999.
ArmSCII or ARMSCII is a set of obsolete single-byte character encodings for the Armenian alphabet defined by Armenian national standard 166-9.

Emphasis (typography)

boldboldfaceemphasis
[ ՛ ] The shesht (which looks like a non-spacing acute accent) is used as an emphasis mark.
In Armenian the շեշտ (šešt) sign is used.

Greek alphabet

GreekGreek lettersGreek letter
However, the general consensus is that Armenian is modeled after the Greek alphabet, supplemented with letters from a different source or sources for Armenian sounds not found in Greek.
It is also considered a possible ancestor of the Armenian alphabet, which in turn influenced the development of the Georgian alphabet.

Classical Armenian

ArmenianOld ArmenianClassical
The digraph աւ (au) followed by a consonant used to be pronounced [au] (as in luau) in Classical Armenian, but due to a sound shift it came to be pronounced, and has since the 13th century been written օ . For example, classical աւր (awr,, "day") became pronounced, and is now written օր (ōr). (One word has kept aw, now pronounced /av/: աղաւնի "pigeon", and there are a few proper names still having aw before a consonant: Տաւրոս Taurus, Փաւստոս Faustus, etc.) For this reason, today there are native Armenian words beginning with the letter օ although this letter was taken from the Greek alphabet to write foreign words beginning with o.
The leftmost indicates the pronunciation in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA); in the middle is the corresponding symbol in the Armenian alphabet and the rightmost is its transliteration in the Latin alphabet (following the 1996 ISO 9985 standard).

Romanization of Armenian

hayerISO 9985Romanization
ISO 9985 (1996) transliterates the Armenian alphabet for modern Armenian as follows:
There are various systems of romanization of the Armenian alphabet.

Unicode

Unicode StandardUU+
With the development of the Unicode standard and its availability on modern operating systems, it has been rendered obsolete.

Armenian calendar

ArmeniaArmenian eraArmenian summer
Armenian calendar
Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, letters of the Armenian alphabet preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin "in the year" (for example, ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ "in the year 1455").

Armenian orthography reform

reformedRAOreformed orthography
In the Middle Ages, two new letters were introduced in order to better represent foreign sounds; this increased the number of letters from 36 to 38. From 1922 to 1924, Soviet Armenia adopted a reformed spelling of the Armenian language.
It was rejected by the Armenian diaspora, most of which speak Western Armenian, including the Armenian communities in Iran, which also speak Eastern Armenian and still use the classical orthography of the Armenian alphabet.

Armenian dram sign

֏sign
On 15 June 2011, the Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) accepted the Armenian dram sign for inclusion in the future versions of the Unicode Standard and assigned a code for the sign – U+058F .
There is a strong belief that the shape of dram sign (symbol) is a direct projection of the Armenian alphabet – the work of Mesrop Mashtots.

Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman TurkishTurkishOttoman
This Armenian script was used alongside the Arabic script on official documents of the Ottoman Empire written in Ottoman Turkish.
The Armenian, Greek and Rashi script of Hebrew were sometimes used by Armenians, Greeks and Jews.