Armor-piercing shell

armor-piercingarmour-piercingAPArmor Piercingarmor-piercing (AP)armour piercingarmour-piercing, cappedarmor-piercing bombarmour-piercing shellarmor-piercing shells
[[Image:ArmorPiercingShell.png|thumb|right|250px|Armor-piercing shell of the APHEBC:wikipedia
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TNT

trinitrotolueneTrotyl2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
3 Desensitized bursting charge (TNT, Trinitrophenol, RDX...)
TNT-filled armour-piercing shells would explode after they had penetrated the armour of British capital ships, whereas the British Lyddite-filled shells tended to explode upon striking armour, thus expending much of their energy outside the ship.

Depleted uranium

depletedDUAP-DU
In modern designs the penetrator no longer looks like a classic artillery shell design, but is instead a long rod of dense material like tungsten or depleted uranium (DU) that further improves the terminal ballistics.
Military uses include armor plating and armor-piercing projectiles.

Anti-tank warfare

anti-tankanti-tank weaponanti-armor
From the 1920s onwards, armor-piercing weapons were required for anti-tank missions.
These technologies took three ammunition approaches: use of grenades by infantrymen, including the Geballte Ladung ("Bundled Charge") of several stick grenades bound together by pioneers; early attempts at the small-caliber anti-tank rifles like the 13 mm Mauser bolt-action; and 3.7 cm TaK Rheinmetall in starrer Räder-lafette 1916 anti-tank gun on a light carriage which could destroy a tank using large-caliber armor-piercing ammunition issued in 1917 to special commands; and the existing 77 mm field guns (such as the 7.7 cm FK 16) of the infantry division's artillery regiment were also eventually issued with special armor-piercing (AP) ammunition.

Panzergranate 39

Panzergranate'' 39/42 (Pzgr. 39/42)Panzergranate'' 39/43Pzgr. 39
As the war progressed, ordnance design evolved so that the bursting charges in APHE became ever smaller to non-existent, especially in smaller caliber shells, e.g. Panzergranate 39 with only 0.2% HE filling.
39''' was a German armor-piercing shell used during World War II.

APCBC

Armour-piercing, capped, ballistic capAPCArmour Piercing, Capped, Ballistic Capped
Another change was the introduction of a soft metal cap over the point of the shell – so called "Makarov tips" invented by Russian admiral Stepan Makarov.
The armour-piercing capped ballistic cap (APCBC) is a type of armor-piercing shell introduced in the 1930s.

Ironclad warship

ironcladironcladsbroadside ironclad
The late 1850s, saw the development of the ironclad warship, which carried wrought iron armor of considerable thickness.
Eventually the armor-piercing shell was developed.

Ammunition

munitionsmunitionordnance
An armor-piercing shell, AP for short, is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor.
There are also specific types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition, used only in certain circumstances.

Bullet

bulletsLeadammunition
AP rounds smaller than 20 mm are typically known as "armor-piercing ammunition", and are intended for lightly-armored targets such as body armor, bulletproof glass and light armored vehicles.

Shell (projectile)

shellshellsartillery shell
An armor-piercing shell must withstand the shock of punching through armor plating.
The first pointed armor-piercing shell was introduced by Major Palliser in 1863.

Panzer IV

IVPanzerkampfwagen IVPzKpfw IV
By mid-1940, Germany had introduced the first HEAT round to be fired by a gun, the 7.5 cm fired by the Kw.K.37 L/24 of the Panzer IV tank and the Stug III self-propelled gun (7.5 cm Gr.38 Hl/A, later editions B and C).
Against armored targets, firing the Panzergranate (armor-piercing shell) at 430 m/s the KwK 37 could penetrate 43 mm, inclined at 30 degrees, at ranges of up to 700 m. A 7.92 mm MG 34 machine gun was mounted coaxially with the main weapon in the turret, while a second machine gun of the same type was mounted in the front plate of the hull.

T-62

T-62 tankT-62 tanks62
HESH was for some time a competitor to the more common HEAT round, again in combination with recoilless rifles as infantry weapons and was effective against tanks such as the T-55 and T-62.
By the late 1950s, Soviet commanders realized that the T-55's 100 mm gun was incapable of penetrating the frontal armor of newer Western tanks, such as the Centurion and M48 Patton, with standard armor-piercing shells.

Vehicle armour

armored vehiclearmoured vehiclearmour
An armor-piercing shell must withstand the shock of punching through armor plating.
Plastic armour was highly effective at stopping armour piercing bullets because the hard granite particles would deflect the bullet, which would then lodge between plastic armour and the steel backing plate.

T-54/T-55

T-55T-54T-54/55
HESH was for some time a competitor to the more common HEAT round, again in combination with recoilless rifles as infantry weapons and was effective against tanks such as the T-55 and T-62.
Advances in armour-piercing and HEAT ammunition would improve the gun's antitank capabilities in the 1960s and 1980s.

Dunnite

ammonium picrateExplosive DAmmonium picrate (Dunnite)
The US forces normally used the explosive Explosive D, otherwise known as ammonium picrate, for this purpose.
The Navy, however, used it in armor-piercing artillery shells and projectiles, and in coastal defense.

Tungsten carbide

carbideWCtungsten-carbide
The APCR projectile has a core of a high-density hard material, such as tungsten carbide, surrounded by a full-bore shell of a lighter material (e.g., an aluminium alloy). High Explosive Incendiary/Armor Piercing Ammunition combines a tungsten carbide penetrator with an incendiary and explosive tip. Armor-piercing rifle and pistol cartridges are usually built around a penetrator of hardened steel, tungsten, or tungsten carbide, and such cartridges are often called 'hard-core bullets'.
In its most basic form, tungsten carbide is a fine gray powder, but it can be pressed and formed into shapes through a process called sintering for use in industrial machinery, cutting tools, abrasives, armor-piercing rounds, other tools and instruments, and jewelry.

High-explosive anti-tank warhead

HEAThigh explosive anti-tankhigh-explosive anti-tank
HEAT shells are a type of shaped charge used to defeat armoured vehicles.
Due to the way they work, they do not have to be fired as fast as an armor piercing shell, allowing less recoil.

High-explosive incendiary/armor-piercing ammunition

High Explosive Incendiary/Armor Piercing Ammunitionsemi-armor-piercing high-explosive incendiaryAPEX
High Explosive Incendiary/Armor Piercing Ammunition combines a tungsten carbide penetrator with an incendiary and explosive tip.
In this respect it is a modern version of an armor-piercing shell.

Anti-tank gun

anti-tankanti-tank gunsAT gun
In mid-1944 the APDS projectile was first introduced into service for the UK's QF 6 pdr anti-tank gun and later in September 1944 for the 17 pdr anti-tank gun.
All fired high-explosive and solid armor-piercing shot effective at relatively medium range, and an increasing number were manufactured with protective gun shields in addition to a split rail mounting.

Ordnance QF 6-pounder

6-pounderOrdnance QF 6 pounderQF 6 pounder
In mid-1944 the APDS projectile was first introduced into service for the UK's QF 6 pdr anti-tank gun and later in September 1944 for the 17 pdr anti-tank gun.
The guns were all the early short-barrel (43 calibre) type, and fired exclusively HE (high-explosive) ammunition, at much lower muzzle velocities than for AP (armour-piercing), because of the use of flashless propellant for night operations.

Ordnance QF 17-pounder

17-pounderOrdnance QF 17 pounder17 pounder
In mid-1944 the APDS projectile was first introduced into service for the UK's QF 6 pdr anti-tank gun and later in September 1944 for the 17 pdr anti-tank gun.

Raufoss Mk 211

Raufoss Mk21112.7×99 mm Raufoss Mk 211 Multipurpose211 Mod 0
The multipurpose name is based on the projectile having an armor-piercing (tungsten core), an explosive, and an incendiary component, thus making it capable of penetrating lightly armored targets and causing damage to personnel inside the target after penetration.

Cartridge (firearms)

cartridgecartridgesrounds
Armor-piercing rifle and pistol cartridges are usually built around a penetrator of hardened steel, tungsten, or tungsten carbide, and such cartridges are often called 'hard-core bullets'.

4.2 cm Pak 41

The Germans deployed their initial design as a light anti-tank weapon, 2,8 cm schwere Panzerbüchse 41, early in the Second World War, and followed on with the 4.2 cm Pak 41 and 7.5 cm Pak 41.

FN 5.7×28mm

5.7×28mm5.7x28mm5.7mm
Some small ammunition, such as the FN 5.7mm round, is inherently capable at piercing armor, being of a small caliber and very high velocity.

Picric acid

LydditemeliniteTrinitrophenol
3 Desensitized bursting charge (TNT, Trinitrophenol, RDX...)