Armour

armorarmoredArmouredarmorsblindagearmor in organic materialArmor makersArmour – overviewarmoured decksarmoured weapons
Armour (British English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.).wikipedia
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Vehicle armour

armored vehiclearmoured vehiclearmour
Vehicle armour is used on warships and armoured fighting vehicles.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
Armour (British English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.).
The word armour was once somewhat common in American usage but has disappeared except in some brand names such as Under Armour.

Cuirass

cuirassesbell cuirassbreastplate
Cuirasses and helmets were manufactured in Japan as early as the 4th century.
A cuirass (cuirasse, coriaceus) is a piece of armor that is formed of a single or multiple pieces of metal or other rigid material which covers the torso.

Chain mail

mailchainmailmail armour
It has been made from a variety of materials, beginning with the use of leathers or fabrics as protection and evolving through mail and metal plate into today's modern composites. In East Asia many types of armour were commonly used at different times by various cultures, including scale armour, lamellar armour, laminar armour, plated mail, mail, plate armour and brigandine.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.

Japanese armour

Japanese armorsamurai armorsamurai armour
The samurai warriors of feudal Japan utilised many types of armour for hundreds of years up to the 19th century.
Japanese armour is thought to have evolved from the armour used in ancient China.

Coat of plates

coats of platesplates
The coat of plates was developed, an armour made of large plates sewn inside a textile or leather coat.
A coat of plates is a form of segmented torso armour consisting of overlapping metal plates riveted inside a cloth or leather garment.

Warship

warshipsshipswar ship
Vehicle armour is used on warships and armoured fighting vehicles.
The introduction of explosive shells soon led to the introduction of iron, and later steel, armour for the sides and decks of larger warships.

Cuirassier

cuirassierscuirasserCürassier
At the start of World War I, thousands of the French Cuirassiers rode out to engage the German Cavalry.
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with cuirass armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe.

Case-hardening

case hardeningcase hardenedface-hardened
Iron armour could be carburised or case hardened to give a surface of harder steel.
The term Face hardening is also used to describe this technique, when discussing modern armour.

Lamellar armour

lamellarlamellar armorbreastplate
In East Asia many types of armour were commonly used at different times by various cultures, including scale armour, lamellar armour, laminar armour, plated mail, mail, plate armour and brigandine.
The earliest evidence points to the post-Iron Age Assyrians as the people responsible for the early development and spread of this form of armour, during the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

Battleship

battleshipsdreadnoughtbattle ship
The first modern production technology for armour plating was used by navies in the construction of the Ironclad warship, reaching its pinnacle of development with the battleship.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.

Military history

military historianhistory of warfaremilitary
For much of military history the manufacture of metal personal armour has dominated the technology and employment of armour.
Weapons and armor, designed to be sturdy, tended to last longer than other artifacts, and thus a great deal of surviving artifacts recovered tend to fall in this category as they are more likely to survive.

Armored cruiser

armoured cruiserarmored cruisersarmoured cruisers
New ships were increasingly constructed to a standard pattern and designated battleships or armoured cruisers.
It was often possible to build cruisers which were faster and better all-round using this type of ship, which relied on a lighter armored deck to protect the vital parts of the ship; however, by the late 1880s the development of rapid-fire cannon and high-explosive shells made the reintroduction of side armor a necessity.

Shaped charge

hollow chargeMunroe effectshaped-charge
Tank armour has progressed from the Second World War armour forms, now incorporating not only harder composites, but also reactive armour designed to defeat shaped charges.
Various types are used to cut and form metal, initiate nuclear weapons, penetrate armor, and perforate wells in the oil and gas industry.

Mail and plate armour

Plated mailmail and platebechter
In East Asia many types of armour were commonly used at different times by various cultures, including scale armour, lamellar armour, laminar armour, plated mail, mail, plate armour and brigandine.
In Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl) Jābir ibn Hayyān describes mail and plate armour for use in armours (jawasin), helmets (bid), and shields (daraq).

Spaced armour

spaced armorSchürzenapplique
Passive defence naval armour is limited to kevlar or steel (either single layer or as spaced armour) protecting particularly vital areas from the effects of nearby impacts.
Armor with two or more plates spaced a distance apart falls under the category of spaced armour.

Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

DyneemaUHMWPESpectra
Today, ballistic vests, also known as flak jackets, made of ballistic cloth (e.g. kevlar, dyneema, twaron, spectra etc.) and ceramic or metal plates are common among police forces, security staff, corrections officers and some branches of the military.
UHMWPE are used as composite plates in armor, in particular, personal armor and on occasion as vehicle armor.

Naval ram

ramram bowrammed
Many ironclads were built to make use of the ram or the torpedo, which a number of naval designers considered the crucial weapons of naval combat.
The theory behind the revival of the weapon derived from the fact that, in the period around 1860, armour held superiority over the ship-mounted cannon.

Royal Armouries

Master of the ArmouriesMaster of the ArmouryArmouries
Surviving period examples of barding are rare; however, complete sets are on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Wallace Collection in London, the Royal Armouries in Leeds, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
The Royal Armouries is the United Kingdom's National Museum of Arms and Armour.

Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of ArtMetropolitan MuseumNew York Metropolitan Museum of Art
Surviving period examples of barding are rare; however, complete sets are on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Wallace Collection in London, the Royal Armouries in Leeds, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world.

Boiled leather

cuir bouilliboiledcuir-bouilli
Horse armour could be made in whole or in part of cuir bouilli (hardened leather), but surviving examples of this are especially rare.
It was used for some armour, being both much cheaper and much lighter than plate armour, but could not withstand a direct blow from a blade, nor a gunshot.

Dragoon

dragoonscavalryIndependence Dragoons
In modern armoured warfare, armoured units equipped with tanks and infantry fighting vehicles serve the historic role of both the battle cavalry, light cavalry and dragoons, and belong to the armoured branch.
After World War II the dragoon regiments were reorganized as armoured reconnaissance units.

English longbow

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This vulnerability was exploited by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in the 14th century, when horses were killed by the infantry, and for the English at the Battle of Crécy in the same century where longbowmen shot horses and the then dismounted French knights were killed by heavy infantry.
Longbows were very difficult to master because the force required to deliver an arrow through the improving armour of medieval Europe was very high by modern standards.

Philadelphia Museum of Art

Philadelphia Art MuseumThe Philadelphia Museum of ArtList of Directors of the Philadelphia Museum of Art
Surviving period examples of barding are rare; however, complete sets are on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Wallace Collection in London, the Royal Armouries in Leeds, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
The museum also houses the armor collection of Carl Otto Kretzschmar von Kienbusch.

Rolled homogeneous armour

RHArolled homogeneous armorhomogeneous armor
For the testing and calibration of anti-tank guns, the term RHAe (Rolled Homogeneous Armour equivalency) is used when giving an estimate of either the penetrative capability of a projectile or the protective capability of a type of armor which may or may not be steel.