Army of the Potomac

Commanders of the Army of the Potomac at Culpeper, Virginia, 1863. From the left: Gouverneur K. Warren, William H. French, George G. Meade, Henry J. Hunt, Andrew A. Humphreys, George Sykes
The Army of the Potomac – Our Outlying Picket in the Woods, 1862
Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac, drawn by Thomas Nast, Harper's Weekly, October 10, 1863
Saint Patrick's Day celebration in the Army of the Potomac, depicting a steeplechase race among the Irish Brigade, March 17, 1863, by Edwin Forbes
Scouts and guides, Army of the Potomac, Mathew Brady
Headquarters of the 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, at the home of Col. Avery near Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864. Photograph by Mathew Brady. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

The principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

- Army of the Potomac

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Union Army of the Shenandoah

Union army during the American Civil War.

Flag of the United States from 1863 until 1865 (35 states/stars)

Neither Patterson nor Banks referred to his commands as the Army of the Shenandoah in official correspondence, and when the Army of the Potomac adopted a Corps structure on March 18, 1862, Banks' command was redesignated as the "Fifth Corps."

First Battle of Bull Run

The first major battle of the American Civil War.

First Battle of Bull Run.
Chromolithograph by Kurz & Allison, 1889
Virginia (1861)
Northeastern Virginia (1861)
Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, General in Chief, USA
Cartoon map illustrating Gen. Winfield Scott's plan to crush the Confederacy, economically. It is sometimes called the "Anaconda plan".
Movements July 16–21, 1861
Situation July 18
Battlefield of Manassas
Situation morning, July 21
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U.S. cavalry at Sudley Spring Ford
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves to fire a cannon at U.S. forces at gunpoint. According to John Parker, a former slave, he was forced by his Confederate captors to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers at the Battle of Bull Run.
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Attacks on Henry House Hill, 1–3 p.m
Union retreat, after 4 p.m.
Ruins of Judith Henry's house, "Spring Hill", after the battle
Postwar house on site of Judith Henry house in Manassas
Judith Henry grave
Capture of Ricketts' Battery, painting by Sidney E. King, National Park Service
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The National Jubilee of Peace building at Grant and Lee avenues in Manassas, Virginia, is draped with the U.S. flag for the 150th anniversary commemoration, held on July 21, 2011, of the First Battle of Bull Run.
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Now, through Chase's influence, McDowell was promoted three grades to brigadier general in the Regular Army and on 27 May was assigned command (by President Abraham Lincoln) of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, which included the military forces in and around Washington (Army of Northeastern Virginia).

Overland Campaign

Series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War.

Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, respectively, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign
Sheridan's Richmond Raid, including the Battles of Yellow Tavern and Meadow Bridge
Union staff meeting at Massaponax Baptist Church on May 21, 1864. Grant has his back to the smaller tree with Charles Anderson Dana to his left, while Meade is seated at the far left.
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 27–29, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Movement to Totopotomoy, May 25–28, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Battle of Haw's Shop
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, May 30, 1864
Maj. Gen. William F. "Baldy" Smith
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
Cold Harbor, June 1
Cold Harbor, June 3
Cold Harbor, Virginia. African Americans collecting bones of soldiers killed in the battle. Photo by John Reekie, April 1865.
Pontoon bridge across the James River
Crossing the James River, 12–16 June 1864.
Routes of Federal and Confederate cavalry to Trevilian Station, June 7–10, 1864
Sheridan's return to the Army of the Potomac from his Trevilian Station raid
Actions in the Wilderness, May 5, 1864.
5 a.m., May 6. Hancock attacks Hill on the Plank Road
6–10 a.m., May 6. Longstreet counterattacks
11 a.m., May 6. Longstreet attacks Hancock's flank from the railroad bed
2 p.m. until dark, May 6.
Movements on May 7, 1864; cavalry actions inset
Positions and movements on the Union flanks, May 9
Grant attacks, May 10
Grant's grand assault, May 12
Reorienting the lines, May 13–16
Movements, May 17, final Union attacks, May 18
Actions on May 23: Hancock attacks "Henagan's Redoubt", A.P. Hill attempts to repulse Warren's beachhead
Actions on May 24: Ledlie attacks Ox Ford, Hancock attempts to advance against the eastern leg of the inverted "V"
Stalemate: Union and Confederate positions May 25–26
Rodes's attack
Ramseur's attack
Actions on June 11
Actions on June 12
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Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, directed the actions of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, and other forces against Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

Army of Virginia

Organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War.

Gen. Pope's headquarters during the battle of Cedar Mountain

Three corps of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac later were added for combat operations.

Peninsula campaign

Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Federal Battery # 4 with 13 in seacoast mortars, Model 1861, during the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, 1862
Movements and battles in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, up through the start of the Battle of Seven Pines
Siege of Yorktown
Engagement Near Hanover Court-House, Virginia
The Chickahominy - Sumner's Upper Bridge: 1862 watercolor by William McIlvaine
Battle of Seven Pines
Brig. Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>

On August 20, 1861, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, with himself as its first commander.

Northern Virginia campaign

Series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September 1862 in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

John Pope and Robert E. Lee, commanding generals of the northern Virginia campaign
Virginia (1862)
Northeastern Virginia (1862)
Second Bull Run campaign, August 17–30, 1862 (Additional map)
Recovering a locomotive wrecked in a Confederate raid
Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad
Second Battle of Bull Run: actions on August 29 and 30

Concerned that Pope's army would combine forces with Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac and overwhelm him, Lee sent Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson north to intercept Pope's advance toward Gordonsville.

IX Corps (Union Army)

Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi.

IX Corps badge
Union Army 1st Division Badge, IX Corps

General Reno retained command of the corps on the Maryland Campaign, General Burnside having charge of the right wing of the Army of the Potomac, which was composed of the I and IX Corps.

Grand Review of the Armies

Military procession and celebration in the national capital city of Washington, D.C., on May 23–24, 1865, following the Union victory in the American Civil War .

The Presidential reviewing stand
A Cavalry unit passing Presidential reviewing stand
thumb|Crowd in front of Presidential reviewing stand
Troops marching while the crowd is watching on Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Infantry marching on Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Infantry unit with fixed bayonets followed by ambulances passing on Pennsylvania near the Treasury
Union Troops during the Grand Review of the Armies
Crowd during the Grand Review of the Armies

It arrived from North Carolina in mid-May and camped around the capital city in various locations, across the Potomac River from the Army of the Potomac, fresh off its victories over Robert E. Lee in Virginia.

Department of Washington

Department of the Union Army constituted on April 9, 1861.

Flag of the United States from 1863 until 1865 (35 states/stars)

It was merged into the Military Division of the Potomac on July 25, 1861.

Robert E. Lee

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

He succeeded in driving the Union Army of the Potomac under George B. McClellan away from the Confederate capital of Richmond during the Seven Days Battles, although he was unable to destroy McClellan's army.