Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.
An illustration of breast cancer
Anastrozole, a non steroidal aromatase inhibitor and a widely used drug in the treatment of breast cancer.
Crystallographic structure of afimoxifene (carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue) complexed with ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) (cyan ribbon).
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Often used as a cancer treatment in postmenopausal women, AIs work by blocking the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol, respectively, which are both crucial to the growth of developing breast cancers (AIs are also effective at treating ovarian cancer, but less commonly so). In the diagram, the adrenal gland (1) releases androstenedione (3) while the ovaries (2) secrete testosterone (4). Both hormones travel to peripheral tissues or a breast cell (5), where they would be converted into estrone (8) or estradiol (9) if not for AIs (7), which prevent the enzyme CYP19A1 (also known as aromatase or estrogen synthase) (6) from catalyzing the reaction that turns androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol. In the diagram, Part A represents the successful conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol in the liver. Part B represents the blockage of this conversion by aromatase inhibitors both in peripheral tissues and in the breast tumor itself.
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Arimidex (anastrozole) 1 mg tablets
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

Tamoxifen, sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.

- Tamoxifen

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and in men, and gynecomastia in men.

- Aromatase inhibitor

Tamoxifen (a SERM) traditionally was the drug treatment of choice, but the ATAC trial (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) showed that in women with localized estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, women receiving the AI anastrozole had better results than the tamoxifen group.

- Aromatase inhibitor

The medications tamoxifen or raloxifene may be used in an effort to prevent breast cancer in those who are at high risk of developing it.

- Breast cancer

The aromatase inhibitor aminoglutethimide induces the metabolism of tamoxifen.

- Tamoxifen

Aromatase inhibitors (such as exemestane and anasatrozole) may be more effective than selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen) at reducing breast cancer risk and they are not associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer and thromboembolism.

- Breast cancer
Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Femara 2.5 mg oral tablet

Letrozole

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Femara 2.5 mg oral tablet

Letrozole, sold under the brand name Femara among others, is an aromatase inhibitor which is used in the treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer after surgery.

Tamoxifen is also used to treat hormonally-responsive breast cancer, but it does so by interfering with the estrogen receptor.

A dimer of the ligand-binding region of ERβ (PDB rendering based on ).

Estrogen receptor

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Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.

A dimer of the ligand-binding region of ERβ (PDB rendering based on ).
The domain structures of ERα and ERβ, including some of the known phosphorylation sites involved in ligand-independent regulation.
A dimer of the ligand-binding region of ERα (PDB rendering based on ).
Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg
Arimidex (anastrozole) 1 mg

The ERα is found in endometrium, breast cancer cells, ovarian stromal cells, and the hypothalamus. In males, ERα protein is found in the epithelium of the efferent ducts.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (e.g., tamoxifen, clomifene, raloxifene)

Endocrine therapy for breast cancer involves selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS), such as tamoxifen, which behave as ER antagonists in breast tissue, or aromatase inhibitors, such as anastrozole.