Arquebus

arquebusierarquebusiersarquebusescaliverharquebusarquebuseharquebusiershagbuthagbutsHackbut
The arquebus (see § Terminology for synonyms), derived from the German word Hakenbüchse ("hook gun"), was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe and the Ottoman Empire during the 15th century.wikipedia
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Musket

musketsmusket ballmusketry
The heavy arquebus, known as the musket, was developed to better penetrate plate armor and appeared in Europe around 1521.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded long gun that appeared as a smoothbore weapon in the early 16th century, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.

Hand cannon

hand cannonsgonnehand-cannon
Although the term arquebus was applied to many different forms of firearms from the 15th to 17th centuries, it originally referred to "a hand-gun with a hook-like projection or lug on its under surface, useful for steadying it against battlements or other objects when firing".
The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Europe in the 14th century until at least the 1560s, when it was supplanted by the matchlock arquebus, which is the first firearm to have a trigger.

Matchlock

matchlocksDoghead (firearms)gun
The addition of a shoulder stock, priming pan, and matchlock mechanism in the late 15th century turned the arquebus into a handheld firearm and also the first firearm equipped with a trigger.
Robert Elgood theorizes the Italian army used the arquebus in the 15th century, but this may be a type of hand cannon, not matchlocks with trigger mechanism.

Black Army of Hungary

Black ArmyCorvinus' armyFekete Sereg
1458–1490). One in four soldiers in the Black Army of Hungary wielded an arquebus, and one in five when accounting for the whole army, which was a relatively high proportion at the time.
Every fourth soldier in the Black Army had an arquebus, which was an unusual ratio at the time.

Stock (firearms)

stockbuttstockshoulder stock
In Europe, a shoulder stock, probably inspired by the crossbow stock, was added to the arquebus around 1470 and the appearance of the matchlock mechanism is dated to a little before 1475.
The modern gunstock shape began to evolve with the introduction of the arquebus, a matchlock with a longer barrel and an actual lock mechanism, unlike the hand-applied match of the hand cannon.

Military of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman ArmyOttoman militaryOttoman
The first references to the use of arquebuses (tüfek) by the Janissary corps of the Ottoman army date them from 1394 to 1465.
The arquebus first appeared in the Ottoman Empire at some point between 1394 and the early 15th century.

Battle of Cerignola

CerignolaCeriñola
The effectiveness of the arquebus was apparent by the Battle of Cerignola of 1503, which is the earliest-recorded military conflict where arquebuses played a decisive role in the outcome of battle.
Spanish forces, under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, formed by 6,300 men, including 2,000 landsknechte, with more than 1,000 arquebusiers, and 20 cannons, defeated the French who had 9,000 men; mainly heavy gendarme cavalry and Swiss mercenary pikemen, with about 40 cannons, and led by Louis d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours, who was killed.

Volley fire

volleysvolleyfired by rank
The development of volley fire—by the Ottomans, the Chinese, the Japanese, and the Dutch—made the arquebus more feasible for widespread adoption by the military.
Frederick Lewis Taylor claims that a kneeling volley fire may have been employed by Prospero Colonna's arquebusiers as early as the Battle of Bicocca (1522).

Crossbow

crossbowscross-bowcranequin
In Europe, a shoulder stock, probably inspired by the crossbow stock, was added to the arquebus around 1470 and the appearance of the matchlock mechanism is dated to a little before 1475. The trigger mechanism of the early arquebus most often resembled that of a crossbow: a gently curved lever pointing backward and parallel to the stock (see photo of the trigger mechanism above).
Later, similar competing tactics would feature harquebusiers or musketeers in formation with pikemen, pitted against cavalry firing pistols or carbines.

Battle of Bicocca

BicoccaBattle of BicoqueBattle of La Bicocca
Frederick Lewis Taylor claims that a kneeling volley fire may have been employed by Prospero Colonna's arquebusiers as early as the Battle of Bicocca (1522).
Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated.

Tanegashima (gun)

tanegashimatanegashima (Japanese matchlock)(''tanegashima'')
By 1550, arquebuses known as tanegashima, teppō or hinawaju were being produced in large numbers in Japan.
Tanegashima, most often called in Japanese and sometimes in English hinawajū (火縄銃, "matchlock gun"), was a type of matchlock configured arquebus firearm introduced to Japan through the Portuguese in 1543.

Musketeer

musketeersMousquetairearquebusiers
Similarly, musketeers and musket-wielding infantrymen were despised in society by the feudal knights, even until the time of Cervantes (1547–1616 AD).
The musketeer manned tercios were developed from the earlier arquebusier manned coronelías, which had firmly established their fearsome reputation by defeating the French and capturing their king at the Battle of Pavia in 1525.

Italian Wars

Great Italian WarsItalian campaignsHabsburg-Valois War
Arquebuses were used in the Italian Wars in the first half of the 16th century.
The French were outmatched by the Imperial-Spanish arquebusier tactics and suffered crippling defeats at Bicocca on April 27, 1522, and Sesia, against Imperial-Spanish troops on April 30, 1524.

Tercio

terciosSpanish Terciosterço
Although the battle was principally won by the decisive counterattack of the Dutch cavalry and despite the failure of the new Dutch infantry tactic in stopping the veteran Spanish tercios, the battle is considered a decisive step forward in the development early modern warfare, where firearms took on an increasingly large role in Europe in the following centuries.
The tercio was an administrative unit with command of up to 3,000 soldiers, subdivided originally into 10, later 12 compañías, made up of pikemen, swordsmen and arquebusiers or musketeers.

Shimazu clan

ShimazuSatsuma clanShimazu family
They were introduced to Japan in 1543 by Portuguese traders who landed by accident on Tanegashima, an island south of Kyūshū in the region controlled by the Shimazu clan.
The Shimazu are also famous for being the first to use teppo (firearms, specifically matchlock arquebuses) on the battlefield in Japan, and began domestic production of the weapons as well.

Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)

Imjin WarJapanese invasions of KoreaJapanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
Tanegashima were widely used during Hideyoshi's unification of Japan and later the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592.
Ryu Seong-ryong, a high-ranking scholar official, suggested that the military put the arquebus (a matchlock firearm) into production and use, but the Korean court failed to appreciate its merits.

Oda Nobunaga

Nobunaga OdaNobunagaGenma Lord
Oda Nobunaga revolutionized musket tactics in Japan by splitting loaders and shooters and assigning three guns to a shooter at the Battle of Nagashino in 1575, during which volley fire may have been implemented.
At the decisive Battle of Nagashino, the combined forces of Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu devastated the Takeda clan with the strategic use of arquebuses.

Early modern warfare

Gunpowder warfareAge of Gunpowderearly modern
Although the battle was principally won by the decisive counterattack of the Dutch cavalry and despite the failure of the new Dutch infantry tactic in stopping the veteran Spanish tercios, the battle is considered a decisive step forward in the development early modern warfare, where firearms took on an increasingly large role in Europe in the following centuries.
By 1415, some infantrymen began deploying the first "hand cannons", and the earliest small-bore arquebuses, with burning "match locks", appeared on the battlefield in the later 15th century.

Weapon

weaponsarmsarmament
Therefore even early firearms such as the arquebus were much more powerful than human-powered weapons.

Battle of Villalar

his 1521 victory at Villalar
At the Battle of Villalar, rebel troops experienced a significant defeat partially due to having a high proportion of arquebusiers in a rainstorm which rendered the weapons useless.
Heavy rain slowed Padilla's infantry more than the royalist cavalry and rendered the primitive firearms of the rebels' 1,000 arquebusiers nearly useless.

Gun

Long gun

long gunslongarmslong-gun
The arquebus (see § Terminology for synonyms), derived from the German word Hakenbüchse ("hook gun"), was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe and the Ottoman Empire during the 15th century. The smoothbore matchlock arquebus is considered the forerunner to the rifle and other long gun firearms.

Rifle

hunting rifleriflesrevolving rifle
The smoothbore matchlock arquebus is considered the forerunner to the rifle and other long gun firearms.

Lead

Pblead orelead mining
These carried a lead ball of about 3.5 oz.