A report on Arrhythmia and Chest pain

Ventricular fibrillation (VF) showing disorganized electrical activity producing a spiked tracing on an electrocardiogram (ECG)
Potential location of pain from a heart attack
Broad classification of arrhythmias according to region of heart required to sustain the rhythm
A blockage of coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack
Normal sinus rhythm, with solid black arrows pointing to normal P waves representative of normal sinus node function, followed by a pause in sinus node activity (resulting in a transient loss of heartbeats). Note that the P wave that disrupts the pause (indicated by the dashed arrow) does not look like the previous (normal) P waves – this last P wave is arising from a different part of the atrium, representing an escape rhythm.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common cause of chest pain in adults

In more serious cases, there may be lightheadedness, passing out, shortness of breath or chest pain.

- Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia: Atrial fibrillation and a number of other arrhythmias can cause chest pain.

- Chest pain
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) showing disorganized electrical activity producing a spiked tracing on an electrocardiogram (ECG)

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.

Myocardial infarction

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A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.
Cross section showing anterior left ventricle wall infarction
Diagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). A myocardial infarction (2) has occurred with blockage of a branch of the left coronary artery (1).
A 12-lead ECG showing an inferior STEMI due to reduced perfusion through the right coronary artery. Elevation of the ST segment can be seen in leads II, III and aVF.
ECG : AMI with ST elevation in V2-4
Inserting a stent to widen the artery.

The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaw.

An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest.

Shortness of breath

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Uncomfortable feeling of not being able to breathe well enough.

Uncomfortable feeling of not being able to breathe well enough.

Acute coronary syndrome frequently presents with retrosternal chest discomfort and difficulty catching the breath.

Risk factors for acute decompensation include high dietary salt intake, medication noncompliance, cardiac ischemia, abnormal heart rhythms, kidney failure, pulmonary emboli, hypertension, and infections.

Leads aVL and aVF of an electrocardiogram showing atrial fibrillation. There are irregular intervals between heart beats. No P waves are seen and there is an erratic baseline between QRS complexes. The heart rate is about 125 beats per minute.

Atrial fibrillation

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Leads aVL and aVF of an electrocardiogram showing atrial fibrillation. There are irregular intervals between heart beats. No P waves are seen and there is an erratic baseline between QRS complexes. The heart rate is about 125 beats per minute.
Normal rhythm tracing (top) Atrial fibrillation (bottom)
How a stroke can occur during atrial fibrillation
Non-modifiable risk factors (top left box) and modifiable risk factors (bottom left box) for atrial fibrillation. The main outcomes of atrial fibrillation are in the right box. BMI=Body Mass Index.
A 12-lead ECG showing atrial fibrillation at approximately 132 beats per minute
Diagram of normal sinus rhythm as seen on ECG. In atrial fibrillation the P waves, which represent depolarization of the top of the heart, are absent.
ECG of atrial fibrillation (top) and normal sinus rhythm (bottom). The purple arrow indicates a P wave, which is lost in atrial fibrillation.
3D Medical Animation still shot of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atrial chambers of the heart.

Since most cases of AF are secondary to other medical problems, the presence of chest pain or angina, signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland) such as weight loss and diarrhea, and symptoms suggestive of lung disease can indicate an underlying cause.

Illustration depicting atherosclerosis in a coronary artery

Coronary artery disease

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial ischemia, or simply heart disease, involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to build-up of atherosclerotic plaque in the arteries of the heart.

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial ischemia, or simply heart disease, involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to build-up of atherosclerotic plaque in the arteries of the heart.

Illustration depicting atherosclerosis in a coronary artery
Clogged artery
Micrograph of a coronary artery with the most common form of coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis) and marked luminal narrowing. Masson's trichrome.
Illustration depicting coronary artery disease
Coronary angiogram of a man
Coronary angiogram of a woman
Deaths due to ischaemic heart disease per million persons in 2012
Disability-adjusted life year for ischaemic heart disease per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. 
no data
<350
350–700
700–1,050
1,050–1,400
1,400–1,750
1,750–2,100
2,100–2,450
2,450–2,800
2,800–3,150
3,150–3,500
3,500–4,000
>4,000

A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.

Other complications include heart failure or an abnormal heartbeat.

A microscope image of myocarditis at autopsy in a person with acute onset of heart failure

Myocarditis

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Acquired cardiomyopathy due to inflammation of the heart muscle.

Acquired cardiomyopathy due to inflammation of the heart muscle.

A microscope image of myocarditis at autopsy in a person with acute onset of heart failure
Diffuse ST elevation in a young male due to myocarditis and pericarditis
Lymphocytic myocarditis (white arrow points to a lymphocyte), commonly showing myocyte necrosis (black arrow), seen as hypereosinophilic cytoplasm with loss of striations.
Endomyocardial biopsy specimen with extensive eosinophilic infiltrate involving the endocardium and myocardium (hematoxylin and eosin stain)

Symptoms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, decreased ability to exercise, and an irregular heartbeat.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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Condition in which the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

Condition in which the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

An ECG showing HOCM
Pressure tracings demonstrating the Brockenbrough–Braunwald–Morrow sign AO = Descending aorta; LV = Left ventricle; ECG = Electrocardiogram. After the third QRS complex, the ventricle has more time to fill. Since there is more time to fill, the left ventricle will have more volume at the end of diastole (increased preload). Due to the Frank–Starling law of the heart, the contraction of the left ventricle (and pressure generated by the left ventricle) will be greater on the subsequent beat (beat #4 in this picture). Because of the dynamic nature of the outflow obstruction in HCM, the obstruction increases more than the left ventricular pressure increase. This causes a fall in the aortic pressure as the left ventricular pressure rises (seen as the yellow shaded area in the picture).
Echocardiography of hypertrophic-obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) in a cat.
Saddle thrombus in the feline aorta. 1 opened Aorta with thrombus, 2 A. iliaca externa, 3 common trunk for both Aa. iliacae internae, 4 A. circumflexa ilium profunda, 5 A. mesenterica caudalis, 6 Colon descendens.

It may also result in chest pain or fainting.

Complications may include heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, and sudden cardiac death.