Arsenic

AsAs 2 ArsenateAs(III)yellow arsenicArsenic productionarsenic-treatedarsenical coloursarsenideAs 4
Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33.wikipedia
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Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal.
In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify (in physics) as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are commonly instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry.

Gallium arsenide

GaAsgallium(III) arsenidegallium-arsenide
Arsenic is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

Arsenic contamination of groundwater

arsenic contaminationarsenicgroundwater
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem that affects millions of people across the world.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
Arsenic is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon. Gray arsenic is a semimetal, but becomes a semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.2–1.4 eV if amorphized.
The conductivity of silicon is increased by adding a small amount (of the order of 1 in 10 8 ) of pentavalent (antimony, phosphorus, or arsenic) or trivalent (boron, gallium, indium) atoms.

Arsenide

diarsenide
This odor can be detected on striking arsenide minerals such as arsenopyrite with a hammer. The most common oxidation states for arsenic are: −3 in the arsenides, which are alloy-like intermetallic compounds, +3 in the arsenites, and +5 in the arsenates and most organoarsenic compounds.
In chemistry, an arsenide is a compound of arsenic with a less electronegative element or elements.

Selenium

SeSe 3 selenium poisoning
Like germanium, selenium, and bromine, which like arsenic succeed the 3d transition series, arsenic is much less stable in the group oxidation state of +5 than its vertical neighbors phosphorus and antimony, and hence arsenic pentoxide and arsenic acid are potent oxidizers.
It is a nonmetal (more rarely considered a metalloid) with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33.

Arsenite

arsenitesAs(III)arsenite ions
The most common oxidation states for arsenic are: −3 in the arsenides, which are alloy-like intermetallic compounds, +3 in the arsenites, and +5 in the arsenates and most organoarsenic compounds.
In chemistry, an arsenite is a chemical compound containing an arsenic oxoanion where arsenic has oxidation state +3.

Arsine

AsH 3 arsanearsenic trihydride
One of the simplest arsenic compound is the trihydride, the highly toxic, flammable, pyrophoric arsine (AsH 3 ).
Arsine (IUPAC name: arsane) is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH 3.

Germanium

GeGe diodesGerman
Like germanium, selenium, and bromine, which like arsenic succeed the 3d transition series, arsenic is much less stable in the group oxidation state of +5 than its vertical neighbors phosphorus and antimony, and hence arsenic pentoxide and arsenic acid are potent oxidizers.
Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a relative of silicon.

Arsenopyrite

mispickel
This odor can be detected on striking arsenide minerals such as arsenopyrite with a hammer.
With 46% arsenic content, arsenopyrite, along with orpiment, is a principal ore of arsenic.

Arsenic pentafluoride

AsF 5 Arsenic(V) fluorideAs
It burns in oxygen to form arsenic trioxide and arsenic pentoxide, which have the same structure as the more well-known phosphorus compounds, and in fluorine to give arsenic pentafluoride.
Arsenic pentafluoride is a chemical compound of arsenic and fluorine.

Cobalt

CoCo 2+ bush sickness
Both orpiment and realgar, as well as As 4 S 3, have selenium analogs; the analogous As 2 Te 3 is known as the mineral kalgoorlieite, and the anion As 2 Te − is known as a ligand in cobalt complexes.
Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment-producing minerals; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic-containing fumes when smelted.

Arsenic acid

arsenicAsO 4 H 3 AsO 4
Arsenic (and some arsenic compounds) sublimes upon heating at atmospheric pressure, converting directly to a gaseous form without an intervening liquid state at 887 K. The triple point is 3.63 MPa and 1090 K. Arsenic makes arsenic acid with concentrated nitric acid, arsenous acid with dilute nitric acid, and arsenic trioxide with concentrated sulfuric acid; however, it does not react with water, alkalis, or non-oxidising acids.
More descriptively written as AsO(OH) 3, this colorless acid is the arsenic analogue of phosphoric acid.

D-block contraction

scandide contractiond-blocksucceed the 3d transition series
Like germanium, selenium, and bromine, which like arsenic succeed the 3d transition series, arsenic is much less stable in the group oxidation state of +5 than its vertical neighbors phosphorus and antimony, and hence arsenic pentoxide and arsenic acid are potent oxidizers.
The elements in question are Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, and Kr.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides.
By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury, and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests.

Arsenic trisulfide

As 2 S 3 arsenicarsenic sulfide
Orpiment (As 2 S 3 ) and realgar (As 4 S 4 ) are somewhat abundant and were formerly used as painting pigments.
Arsenic trisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula As 2 S 3.

Nitric acid

nitricHNO 3 aqua fortis
Arsenic (and some arsenic compounds) sublimes upon heating at atmospheric pressure, converting directly to a gaseous form without an intervening liquid state at 887 K. The triple point is 3.63 MPa and 1090 K. Arsenic makes arsenic acid with concentrated nitric acid, arsenous acid with dilute nitric acid, and arsenic trioxide with concentrated sulfuric acid; however, it does not react with water, alkalis, or non-oxidising acids.
Some metalloids and metals give the oxides; for instance, Sn, As, Sb, and Ti are oxidized into SnO 2, As 2 O 5, Sb 2 O 5, and TiO 2 respectively.

Sublimation (phase transition)

sublimationsublimessublimate
Arsenic (and some arsenic compounds) sublimes upon heating at atmospheric pressure, converting directly to a gaseous form without an intervening liquid state at 887 K. The triple point is 3.63 MPa and 1090 K. Arsenic makes arsenic acid with concentrated nitric acid, arsenous acid with dilute nitric acid, and arsenic trioxide with concentrated sulfuric acid; however, it does not react with water, alkalis, or non-oxidising acids.
For some substances, such as carbon and arsenic, sublimation is much easier than evaporation from the melt, because the pressure of their triple point is very high, and it is difficult to obtain them as liquids.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
Arsenic is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon.
However, doping silicon with a pnictogen such as phosphorus, arsenic, or antimony introduces one extra electron per dopant and these may then be excited into the conduction band either thermally or photolytically, creating an n-type semiconductor.

Cadmium arsenide

A 2 3 B 5 2 Cd 3 As 2
Other arsenic alloys include the II-V semiconductor cadmium arsenide.
Cadmium arsenide (Cd 3 As 2 ) is an inorganic semimetal in the II-V family.

Adamsite

vomit gaschlorarsinediphenylaminechlorarsine
Several were developed as chemical warfare agents during World War I, including vesicants such as lewisite and vomiting agents such as adamsite.
Adamsite or DM is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine, that can be used as a riot control agent.

Insecticide

insecticidesinsecticidalsystemic insecticide
Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides.
DDT was introduced to replace lead and arsenic-based compounds, which were in widespread use in the early 1940s.

Semimetal

semi-metalsemimetalsmeaning
Gray arsenic is a semimetal, but becomes a semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.2–1.4 eV if amorphized.
With some semimetals, like arsenic and antimony, there is a temperature-independent carrier density below room temperature (as in metals) while, in bismuth, this is true at very low temperatures but at higher temperatures the carrier density increases with temperature giving rise to a semimetal-semiconductor transition.

Realgar

tetraarsenic tetrasulfidered arsenic sulfidearsenic disulfide
Orpiment (As 2 S 3 ) and realgar (As 4 S 4 ) are somewhat abundant and were formerly used as painting pigments.
Realgar, α-As 4 S 4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic".