Arteriole

arteriolesarteriolararterialarteriolar endarteriolar wallsresistance vesselssmall arteries
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.wikipedia
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Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
There are five types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the arterioles; the capillaries, where the exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues occurs; the venules; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back towards the heart.

Capillary

capillariessinusoidscapillary bed
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
They are the smallest blood vessels in the body: they convey blood between the arterioles and venules.

Microcirculation

microvasculaturemicrovesselmicrovascular
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
The microvessels include terminal arterioles, metarterioles, capillaries, and venules.

Arteriolosclerosis

Hyaline arteriolosclerosisArterial hyalineHyaline type
An increase in the media to lumenal diameter ratio has been observed in hypertensive arterioles (arteriolosclerosis) as the vascular wall thickens and/or lumenal diameter decreases.
It is a type of arteriolosclerosis, which refers to thickening of the arteriolar wall and is part of the ageing process.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. The up and down fluctuation of the arterial blood pressure is due to the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output and determined by the interaction of the stroke volume versus the volume and elasticity of the major arteries.
Arterioles have the greatest collective influence on both local blood flow and on overall blood pressure.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
Blood pressure in the arteries supplying the body is a result of the work needed to pump the cardiac output (the flow of blood pumped by the heart) through the vascular resistance, usually termed total peripheral resistance by physicians and researchers.
Mean blood pressure drops over the whole circulation, although most of the fall occurs along the small arteries and arterioles.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
This can be due to decreased elastic production from fibrinogen, associated with ageing, or hypertension or pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis is a general term describing any hardening (and loss of elasticity) of medium or large arteries ; arteriolosclerosis is any hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arterioles (small arteries); atherosclerosis is a hardening of an artery specifically due to an atheromatous plaque.

Vascular resistance

total peripheral resistancesystemic vascular resistanceperipheral vascular resistance
Blood pressure in the arteries supplying the body is a result of the work needed to pump the cardiac output (the flow of blood pumped by the heart) through the vascular resistance, usually termed total peripheral resistance by physicians and researchers. Arterioles have muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance.
The major determinant of vascular resistance is small arteriolar (known as resistance arterioles) tone.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
This can be due to decreased elastic production from fibrinogen, associated with ageing, or hypertension or pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis. Any pathology which constricts blood flow, such as stenosis, will increase total peripheral resistance and lead to hypertension.
The increased peripheral resistance in established hypertension is mainly attributable to structural narrowing of small arteries and arterioles, although a reduction in the number or density of capillaries may also contribute.

Metarteriole

meta-arterioles
A "metarteriole" is an arteriole which bypasses capillary circulation.
A metarteriole is a short microvessel in the microcirculation that links arterioles and capillaries.

Venule

venulesvenulavenular
The opposite process occurs when the blood leaves the capillaries and enters the venules, where the blood pressure drops due to an increase in flow rate.
The middle layer is poorly developed so that venules have thinner walls than arterioles.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Arterioles have muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance.

Smooth muscle

smooth muscle cellssmooth musclessmooth muscle cell
Arterioles have muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance.

Endothelium

endothelialendothelial cellsendothelial cell
In a healthy vascular system the endothelium lines all blood-contacting surfaces, including arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, capillaries, and heart chambers.

Nitric oxide

NOnitrogen monoxidenitric oxide (NO)
This healthy condition is promoted by the ample production of nitric oxide by the endothelium, which requires a biochemical reaction regulated by a complex balance of polyphenols, various nitric oxide synthase enzymes and L-arginine.

Polyphenol

polyphenolsphenolicphenolics
This healthy condition is promoted by the ample production of nitric oxide by the endothelium, which requires a biochemical reaction regulated by a complex balance of polyphenols, various nitric oxide synthase enzymes and L-arginine.

Nitric oxide synthase

iNOSinducible nitric oxide synthaseNO synthase
This healthy condition is promoted by the ample production of nitric oxide by the endothelium, which requires a biochemical reaction regulated by a complex balance of polyphenols, various nitric oxide synthase enzymes and L-arginine.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
This healthy condition is promoted by the ample production of nitric oxide by the endothelium, which requires a biochemical reaction regulated by a complex balance of polyphenols, various nitric oxide synthase enzymes and L-arginine.

Arginine

ArgL-arginineR
This healthy condition is promoted by the ample production of nitric oxide by the endothelium, which requires a biochemical reaction regulated by a complex balance of polyphenols, various nitric oxide synthase enzymes and L-arginine.

Cardiac output

Cardiac inputoutputoutput of the heart
Blood pressure in the arteries supplying the body is a result of the work needed to pump the cardiac output (the flow of blood pumped by the heart) through the vascular resistance, usually termed total peripheral resistance by physicians and researchers. The up and down fluctuation of the arterial blood pressure is due to the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output and determined by the interaction of the stroke volume versus the volume and elasticity of the major arteries.

Stroke volume

heart muscle contraction forcestroke work (SW).volume
The up and down fluctuation of the arterial blood pressure is due to the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output and determined by the interaction of the stroke volume versus the volume and elasticity of the major arteries.

Bernoulli's principle

Bernoulli's equationBernoulli effectBernoulli equation
The decreased velocity of flow in the capillaries increases the blood pressure, due to Bernoulli's principle.

Osmotic pressure

osmotic potentialosmoticmembrane osmometry
This induces gas and nutrients to move from the blood to the cells, due to the lower osmotic pressure outside the capillary.

Autonomic nervous system

autonomicautonomous nervous systemautonomic functions
Arterioles receive autonomic nervous system innervation and respond to various circulating hormones in order to regulate their diameter.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Arterioles receive autonomic nervous system innervation and respond to various circulating hormones in order to regulate their diameter.