Arteriovenous fistula

arteriovenous shuntA-V fistulaarterio venous (AV) shuntingArteriovenous (AV) fistulaAV fistulaeAV fistulasfistulafistulas
An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.wikipedia
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Cimino fistula

fistulaSurgically created arteriovenous fistulas
Intentionally created (for example, Cimino fistula as vascular access for hemodialysis). Blood must be aspirated from the body of the patient, and since arteries are not easy to reach compared to the veins, blood may be aspirated from veins. The problem is that the walls of the veins are thin compared to those of the arteries. The AV fistula is the solution for this problem because, after 4-6 weeks, the walls of the veins become thicker due to the height arterial pressure. Thus, this vein can now tolerate needles during hemodialysis sessions.
Frustrated by this limitation, James E. Cimino recalled his days as a phlebotomist (blood drawer) at New York City's Bellevue Hospital in the 1950s when Korean War veterans showed up with fistulas caused by trauma.

Fistula

fistulaefistulasfistulization
Fistula
(I28.0) Arteriovenous fistula of pulmonary vessels

Pulse pressure

arterial Pulse Pressure
The physical manifestations of this would be a relatively normal systolic blood pressure with a decreased diastolic blood pressure resulting in a wide pulse pressure.
Arteriovenous fistula

Carotid-cavernous fistula

carotid-cavernous sinus fistulacarotico-cavernous fistulacarotid cavernous fistula
Carotid-cavernous fistula
It is a type of arteriovenous fistula.

Preload (cardiology)

preloadcardiac preloadpre-load
An arteriovenous fistula can increase preload.
An arteriovenous fistula can increase preload.

Vascular bypass

vascular graftArtificial vascular graftsbypass surgery
Human umbilical vein graft
Such a bypass is referred to as an arteriovenous fistula if it directly connects a vein to an artery without using synthetic material.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.

Vein

veinsvenousvenous system
An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.

Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defects
It may be congenital, surgically created for hemodialysis treatments, or acquired due to pathologic process, such as trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm.

Hemodialysis

haemodialysisdialysisartificial kidney machine
It may be congenital, surgically created for hemodialysis treatments, or acquired due to pathologic process, such as trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm.

Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologies
It may be congenital, surgically created for hemodialysis treatments, or acquired due to pathologic process, such as trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm.

Injury

traumainjuriesphysical trauma
It may be congenital, surgically created for hemodialysis treatments, or acquired due to pathologic process, such as trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm.

Aneurysm

aneurysmsaneurismruptured aneurysm
It may be congenital, surgically created for hemodialysis treatments, or acquired due to pathologic process, such as trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm.

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

HHTtelangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagicBabington disease
*Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Intracranial aneurysm

brain aneurysmcerebral aneurysmaneurysm
Just like berry aneurysm, an intracerebral arteriovenous fistula can rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

subarachnoid haemorrhagesubarachnoidsubarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic
Just like berry aneurysm, an intracerebral arteriovenous fistula can rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Abdominal aorta

abdominalabdominal aorticaorta, abdominal
When an arteriovenous fistula is formed involving a major artery like the abdominal aorta, it can lead to a large decrease in peripheral resistance.

Vascular resistance

systemic vascular resistancetotal peripheral resistanceperipheral vascular resistance
When an arteriovenous fistula is formed involving a major artery like the abdominal aorta, it can lead to a large decrease in peripheral resistance.

Cardiac output

cardiac inputoutputoutput of the heart
This lowered peripheral resistance causes the heart to increase cardiac output to maintain proper blood flow to all tissues.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
The physical manifestations of this would be a relatively normal systolic blood pressure with a decreased diastolic blood pressure resulting in a wide pulse pressure.

Brachial artery

brachialbrachial arteriesbrachioradial artery
Normal blood flow in the brachial artery is 85 to 110 milliliters per minute (mL/min).

Cephalic vein

cephalicantecubital vein
In one study, the cephalic vein increased from 2.3 mm to 6.3 mm diameter after 2 months.

Cannula

cannulationcannulaecannulated
When the vein is large enough to allow cannulation, the fistula is defined as "mature".