A report on Arthropod and Hemolymph

A grasshopper has an open circulatory system, where hemolymph moves through interconnected sinuses or hemocoels, spaces surrounding the organs.
Structure of a biramous appendage.
Above is a diagram of an open circulatory system. An open circulatory system is made up of a heart, vessels, and hemolymph. This diagram shows how the hemolymph is circulated throughout the body of a grasshopper. The hemolymph is first pumped through the heart, into the aorta, dispersed into the head and throughout the hemocoel, then back through the ostia that are located in the heart, where the process is repeated.
Alignment of anterior body segments and appendages across various arthropod taxa, based on the observations until mid 2010s. Head regions in black.
Illustration of an idealized arthropod exoskeleton.
Cicada climbing out of its exoskeleton while attached to tree
Arthropod eyes
Head of a wasp with three ocelli (center), and compound eyes at the left and right
Compsobuthus werneri female with young (white)
The nauplius larva of a penaeid shrimp
Marrella, one of the puzzling arthropods from the Burgess Shale
Kylinxia
The velvet worm (Onychophora) is closely related to arthropods
Insects and scorpions on sale in a food stall in Bangkok, Thailand

It is the major tissue type of the open circulatory system characteristic of arthropods (e.g. arachnids, crustaceans and insects).

- Hemolymph

The haemocoel, an arthropod's internal cavity, through which its haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates, accommodates its interior organs; it has an open circulatory system.

- Arthropod

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Venous (darker) and arterial (brighter) blood

Blood

1 links

Body fluid in the circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells, and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

Body fluid in the circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells, and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

Venous (darker) and arterial (brighter) blood
Hemoglobin, a globular protein
green = haem (or heme) groups
red & blue = protein subunits
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a normal red blood cell (left), a platelet (middle), and a white blood cell (right)
Vertebrate red blood cell types, measurements in micrometers
Frog red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Turtle red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Chicken red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Human red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Circulation of blood through the human heart
Basic hemoglobin saturation curve. It is moved to the right in higher acidity (more dissolved carbon dioxide) and to the left in lower acidity (less dissolved carbon dioxide)
Capillary blood from a bleeding finger
Venous blood collected during blood donation
Jan Janský is credited with the first classification of blood into four types (A, B, AB, and O)
Human blood fractioned by centrifugation: Plasma (upper, yellow layer), buffy coat (middle, thin white layer) and erythrocyte layer (bottom, red layer) can be seen.
Blood circulation: Red = oxygenated, blue = deoxygenated
Illustration depicting formed elements of blood
Two tubes of EDTA-anticoagulated blood.

Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system.

Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system.

The human circulatory system (simplified). Red indicates oxygenated blood carried in arteries. Blue indicates deoxygenated blood carried in veins. Capillaries join the arteries and veins.

Circulatory system

1 links

System of organs that includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood which is circulated throughout the entire body of a human or other vertebrate.

System of organs that includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood which is circulated throughout the entire body of a human or other vertebrate.

The human circulatory system (simplified). Red indicates oxygenated blood carried in arteries. Blue indicates deoxygenated blood carried in veins. Capillaries join the arteries and veins.
Blood flow in the pulmonary and systemic circulations showing capillary networks in the torso sections
Diagram of the human heart viewed from the front
The pulmonary circulation as it passes from the heart. Showing both the pulmonary and bronchial arteries.
Capillary bed
Diagram of capillary network joining the arterial system with the venous system.
Depiction of the heart, major veins and arteries constructed from body scans
Animation of a typical human red blood cell cycle in the circulatory system. This animation occurs at a faster rate (~20 seconds of the average 60-second cycle) and shows the red blood cell deforming as it enters capillaries, as well as the bars changing color as the cell alternates in states of oxygenation along the circulatory system.
Magnetic resonance angiography of aberrant subclavian artery
The open circulatory system of the grasshopper – made up of a heart, vessels and hemolymph. The hemolymph is pumped through the heart, into the aorta, dispersed into the head and throughout the hemocoel, then back through the ostia in the heart and the process repeated.
Flatworms, such as this Pseudoceros bifurcus, lack specialized circulatory organs.
Two-chambered heart of a fish
Human anatomical chart of blood vessels, with heart, lungs, liver and kidneys included. Other organs are numbered and arranged around it. Before cutting out the figures on this page, Vesalius suggests that readers glue the page onto parchment and gives instructions on how to assemble the pieces and paste the multilayered figure onto a base "muscle man" illustration. "Epitome", fol.14a. HMD Collection, WZ 240 V575dhZ 1543.
Image of veins from William Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, 1628
Diagram of the human heart showing blood oxygenation to the pulmonary and systemic circulation

Some invertebrates such as arthropods have an open circulatory system.

In arthropods, the open circulatory system is a system in which a fluid in a cavity called the hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients, with there being no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid; this combined fluid is called hemolymph or haemolymph.

Arachnid

0 links

Basic characteristics of arachnids include four pairs of legs (1) and a body divided into two tagmata: the cephalothorax (2) and the abdomen (3)
"Arachnida" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
Hubbardia pentapeltis (Schizomida)
Fossil Goniotarbus angulatus (Phalangiotarbi)
Fossil of Kreischeria (Trigonotarbida)
Eukoenenia spelaea (Palpigradi)

Arachnida is a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

Spiders and whipscorpions extend their limbs hydraulically using the pressure of their hemolymph.

Evolution has produced enormous variety in insects. Pictured are some possible shapes of antennae.

Insect

0 links

Insects (from Latin insectum) are pancrustacean hexapod invertebrates of the class Insecta.

Insects (from Latin insectum) are pancrustacean hexapod invertebrates of the class Insecta.

Evolution has produced enormous variety in insects. Pictured are some possible shapes of antennae.
A pie chart of described eukaryote species, showing just over half of these to be insects
Insects with population trends documented by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, for orders Collembola, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, and Orthoptera. Of 203 insect species that had such documented population trends in 2013, 33% were in decline.
Stylized diagram of insect digestive tract showing malpighian tubule, from an insect of the order Orthoptera
Bumblebee defecating. Note the contraction of the abdomen to provide internal pressure
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
The different forms of the male (top) and female (bottom) tussock moth Orgyia recens is an example of sexual dimorphism in insects.
Gulf fritillary life cycle, an example of holometabolism.
Most insects have compound eyes and two antennae.
A cathedral mound created by termites (Isoptera).
White-lined sphinx moth feeding in flight
The backswimmer Notonecta glauca underwater, showing its paddle-like hindleg adaptation
Perhaps one of the most well-known examples of mimicry, the viceroy butterfly (top) appears very similar to the monarch butterfly (bottom).
European honey bee carrying pollen in a pollen basket back to the hive
Aedes aegypti, a parasite, is the vector of dengue fever and yellow fever
Because they help flowering plants to cross-pollinate, some insects are critical to agriculture. This European honey bee is gathering nectar while pollen collects on its body.
A robberfly with its prey, a hoverfly. Insectivorous relationships such as these help control insect populations.
The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used organisms in biological research.
Insect morphology 
A- Head B- Thorax C- Abdomen
Basic motion of the insect wing in insect with an indirect flight mechanism scheme of dorsoventral cut through a thorax segment with a wings, b joints, c dorsoventral muscles, d longitudinal muscles.

They are the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

The dorsal blood vessel circulates the hemolymph, arthropods' fluid analog of blood, from the rear of the body cavity forward.

Crystal structure of hexameric haemocyanin from Panulirus interruptus refined at 3.2 angstroms resolution

Hemocyanin

0 links

Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

Crystal structure of hexameric haemocyanin from Panulirus interruptus refined at 3.2 angstroms resolution
The underside of the carapace of a red rock crab (Cancer productus). The purple coloring is caused by hemocyanin.
crystallographic analysis of oxygenated and deoxygenated states of arthropod hemocyanin shows unusual differences
A hemocyanin active site in the absence of O2 (each Cu center is a cation, charges not shown).
O2-bound form of a hemocyanin active site (the Cu2 center is a dication, charge not shown).

Unlike the hemoglobin in red blood cells found in vertebrates, hemocyanins are not confined in blood cells but are instead suspended directly in the hemolymph.

Hemocyanins are found only in the Mollusca and Arthropoda: the earliest discoveries of hemocyanins were in the snail Helix pomatia (a mollusc) and in the horseshoe crab (an arthropod).