Arthur Schopenhauer

SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulateSchopenauerSchopenhauer, ArthurSchopenhauerianArthur Schopenhauer’sEssays of SchopenhauerEternal justicemetaphysical willphilosophers
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.wikipedia
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The World as Will and Representation

The World as Will and IdeaWorld as Will and RepresentationDie Welt als Wille und Vorstellung
He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation (expanded in 1844), wherein he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will.
The World as Will and Representation (WWR; Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, WWV) is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.

Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheNietzscheanFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
His body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, philology, history, religion, tragedy, culture, and science, and drew early inspiration from figures such as philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, composer Richard Wagner, and writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Thomas Mann

MannThomasMann, Thomas
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
His analysis and critique of the European and German soul used modernized versions of German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer.

Johanna Schopenhauer

mother
Ducha 47), the son of Johanna Schopenhauer (née Trosiener) and Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, both descendants of wealthy German-Dutch patrician families.
She is today known primarily for being the mother of Arthur Schopenhauer.

Erwin Schrödinger

SchrödingerErwin SchroedingerErwin Schrodinger
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
At an early age, Schrödinger was strongly influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer.

Adele Schopenhauer

Adele
Adele, Arthur's only sibling was born on 12 July 1797.
She was the sister of the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer and daughter of author Johanna Schopenhauer.

Jorge Luis Borges

BorgesBorgesianJorge Luís Borges
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
At that time, Borges discovered the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer and Gustav Meyrink's The Golem (1915) which became influential to his work.

Gustav Mahler

MahlerMahlerianMahler, Gustav
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
Mahler developed interests in German philosophy, and was introduced by his friend Siegfried Lipiner to the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gustav Fechner and Hermann Lotze.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

WittgensteinWittgensteinianLudwig
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
He also discussed it with Gretl, his other sister, who directed him to Arthur Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation.

Transcendental idealism

transcendentaltranscendentTranscendental idealist
Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that has been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism, rejecting the contemporaneous post-Kantian philosophies of German idealism.
Transcendental idealism was also adopted as a label by the subsequent German philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, and in the early 20th century by Edmund Husserl in the novel form of transcendental-phenomenological idealism.

Richard Wagner

WagnerWagnerianWagnerian opera
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
One source of inspiration for Tristan und Isolde was the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer, notably his The World as Will and Representation, to which Wagner had been introduced in 1854 by his poet friend Georg Herwegh.

Joseph Campbell

Collected Works of Joseph CampbellThe Masks of GodCampbell, Joseph
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
The works of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche had a profound effect on Campbell's thinking; he quoted their writing frequently.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
After these individuals, the Classical conception had all but died with the exceptions of Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

University of Göttingen

GöttingenGöttingen UniversityGeorg-August-Universität Göttingen
He left Weimar to become a student at the University of Göttingen in 1809.
In 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant.

Western philosophy

Western thoughtWesternlate modern philosophy
Schopenhauer was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Eastern philosophy (e.g., asceticism, the world-as-appearance), having initially arrived at similar conclusions as the result of his own philosophical work.
Arthur Schopenhauer's identification of this world-constituting process as an irrational will to live influenced later 19th- and early 20th-century thinking, such as the work of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Samuel Beckett

BeckettBeckettianSamuel Becket
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
Beckett's 1930 essay Proust was strongly influenced by Schopenhauer's pessimism and laudatory descriptions of saintly asceticism.

On Vision and Colours

On Vision and Colors
Schopenhauer soon started writing his own treatise on the subject, On Vision and Colors, which in many points differed from his teacher's.
On Vision and Colors (Ueber das Sehn und die Farben) is a treatise by Arthur Schopenhauer that was published in May 1816 when the author was 28 years old.

Upanishads

UpanishadUpanishadicUpanisads
Schopenhauer was immediately impressed by the Upanishads and the Buddha and put them at par with Plato and Kant.
Arthur Schopenhauer was deeply impressed by the Upanishads and called it "the production of the highest human wisdom".

On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason

He spent his time in solitude, hiking in the mountains and the Thuringian forest and writing his dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde) is an elaboration on the classical Principle of Sufficient Reason, written by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer as his doctoral dissertation in 1813.

Theory of Colours

Theory of ColorsZur FarbenlehreFarbenlehre
They mostly discussed Goethe's newly published (and somewhat lukewarmly received) work on color theory.
Although Goethe's work was rejected by physicists, a number of philosophers and physicists have concerned themselves with it, including Thomas Johann Seebeck, Arthur Schopenhauer (see: On Vision and Colors), Hermann von Helmholtz, Rudolf Steiner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Werner Heisenberg, Kurt Gödel, and Mitchell Feigenbaum.

German literature

GermanGermanyliterature
His mother moved, with her daughter Adele, to Weimar—then the centre of German literature—to enjoy social life among writers and artists.

Humboldt University of Berlin

University of BerlinBerlinHumboldt University
He arrived to the newly founded University of Berlin for the winter semester of 1811-12.
The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that has been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism, rejecting the contemporaneous post-Kantian philosophies of German idealism.
Arthur Schopenhauer was strongly influenced by Kant's transcendental idealism.

Leo Tolstoy

TolstoyLev TolstoyTolstoi
Those who cited his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein, Anthony Ludovici, Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, Jorge Luis Borges, and Samuel Beckett.
After reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation, Tolstoy gradually became converted to the ascetic morality upheld in that work as the proper spiritual path for the upper classes: "Do you know what this summer has meant for me? Constant raptures over Schopenhauer and a whole series of spiritual delights which I've never experienced before. ... no student has ever studied so much on his course, and learned so much, as I have this summer"

Franz Passow

F. Passow
It is possible that Goethe kept distance because Johanna warned him about her son's depressive and combative nature, or because Goethe was then on bad terms with Arthur's language instructor and roommate, Franz Passow.
In 1807 he was appointed to the professorship of Greek literature at the Weimar gymnasium by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose acquaintance he had made during a holiday tour; his lessons were attended by the young Arthur Schopenhauer.