Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticlesindefinite articledefiniteindefinitedefinite articlesgrammatical articledefinite-articleindefinite articles
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.wikipedia
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List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
In many languages, articles are a special part of speech which with other parts of speech. In English grammar, articles are frequently considered part of a broader category called determiners, which contains articles, demonstratives (such as "this" and "that"), possessive determiners (such as "my" and "his"), and quantifiers (such as "all" and "few").
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article, or determiner.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender).
This is partly the case in English: every noun is either singular or plural (a few forms, such as "fish", can be either, according to context), and at least some modifiers of nouns—namely the demonstratives, the personal pronouns, the articles, and verbs—are inflected to agree with the number of the nouns to which they refer: "this car" and "these cars" are correct, while "*this cars" or "*these car" are ungrammatical and, therefore, incorrect.

Possessive determiner

possessive adjectivepossessivespossessive adjectives
In English grammar, articles are frequently considered part of a broader category called determiners, which contains articles, demonstratives (such as "this" and "that"), possessive determiners (such as "my" and "his"), and quantifiers (such as "all" and "few").
Possessive determiners, as used in English and some other languages, imply the definite article.

Ukraine

🇺🇦UkrainianUKR
This distinction can sometimes become a political matter: the former usage the Ukraine stressed the word's Russian meaning of "borderlands"; as Ukraine became a fully independent state following the collapse of the Soviet Union, it requested that formal mentions of its name omit the article.
"The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, and style-guides largely recommend not using the definite article.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender).
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.

Proper noun

proper namecommon nounproper nouns
In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender).
In English, proper names in their primary application cannot normally be modified by an article or other determiner (such as any or another), although some may be taken to include the article the, as in the Netherlands, the Roaring Forties, or the Rolling Stones.

Epenthesis

epentheticepenthetic vowelsvarabhakti
Articles may also be modified as influenced by adjacent sounds or words as in elision (e.g., French "le" becoming "l'" before a vowel), epenthesis (e.g., English "a" becoming "an" before a vowel), or contraction (e.g. Irish "i + na" becoming "sna").
A similar example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel.

Contraction (grammar)

contractioncontractionscontracted
Articles may also be modified as influenced by adjacent sounds or words as in elision (e.g., French "le" becoming "l'" before a vowel), epenthesis (e.g., English "a" becoming "an" before a vowel), or contraction (e.g. Irish "i + na" becoming "sna").
In informal, spoken German prepositional phrases, one can often merge the preposition and the article; for example, von dem becomes vom, zu dem becomes zum, or an das becomes ans.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
Articles are found in many Indo-European languages, Semitic languages (only the definite article), and Polynesian languages, but are formally absent from many of the world’s major languages, such as Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, the majority of Slavic and Baltic languages (incl.
Nouns have no grammatical number or gender, and there are no articles.

Bulgarian language

BulgarianBulgarian:Bulgarian Cyrillic
Most of the languages in this family do not have definite or indefinite articles: there is no article in Latin or Sanskrit, nor in some modern Indo-European languages, such as the families of Slavic languages (except for Bulgarian and Macedonian, which are rather distinctive among the Slavic languages in their grammar) and Baltic languages.
Bulgarian, along with the closely related Macedonian language (collectively forming the East South Slavic languages), has several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article (see Balkan language area), and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
Articles may also be modified as influenced by adjacent sounds or words as in elision (e.g., French "le" becoming "l'" before a vowel), epenthesis (e.g., English "a" becoming "an" before a vowel), or contraction (e.g. Irish "i + na" becoming "sna"). It also occurs colloquially in Spanish, German, French, Italian and other languages.
the development of grammatical articles from Latin demonstratives

Definiteness

definiteindefinitedef.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender).
Article (grammar)

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
It also occurs colloquially in Spanish, German, French, Italian and other languages.
With four cases and three genders plus plural, there are 16 permutations of case and gender/number of the article (not the nouns), but there are only six forms of the definite article, which together cover all 16 permutations.

Italian language

ItalianitItalian-language
It also occurs colloquially in Spanish, German, French, Italian and other languages.
There are three other special digraphs in Italian: [[gn (digraph)|]], and . The digraph represents . represents before, and never at the beginning of a word, except in the personal pronoun and definite article gli. An exception is the word glicerina ("glycerin"), which is pronounced with a hard . (Compare with Spanish and, Portuguese and .) represents a fricative before . Except in the speech of some Northern Italians, all of these are normally geminate between vowels.

X-bar theory

X-bar schemaX-barX-bar framework
Linguists interested in X-bar theory causally link zero articles to nouns lacking a determiner.
The word the is a determiner (specifically an article), which at first was believed to be a type of specifier for nouns.

Catalan language

CatalancaCatalan-language
For example, such use is standard in Portuguese (a Maria, literally: "the Maria"), in Greek and in Catalan (la Núria, el/en Oriol).
Use of definite and indefinite articles.

Chinese language

ChineseRegional dialectChinese:
Articles are found in many Indo-European languages, Semitic languages (only the definite article), and Polynesian languages, but are formally absent from many of the world’s major languages, such as Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, the majority of Slavic and Baltic languages (incl.
In other words, Chinese has very few grammatical inflections—it possesses no tenses, no voices, no numbers (singular, plural; though there are plural markers, for example for personal pronouns), and only a few articles (i.e., equivalents to "the, a, an" in English).

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Swedish and Norwegian: hus, house; huset, the house; if there is an adjective: det gamle (N)/gamla (S) huset, the old house
The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes (endings), complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles.

English articles

articlesthearticle
"An" and "a" are modern forms of the Old English "an", which in Anglian dialects was the number "one" (compare "on" in Saxon dialects) and survived into Modern Scots as the number "owan".
Articles in the English language are the definite article the and the indefinite articles a and an.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
Generally, articles develop over time usually by specialization of certain adjectives or determiners, and their development is often a sign of languages becoming more analytic instead of synthetic, perhaps combined with the loss of inflection as in English, Romance languages, Bulgarian, Macedonian and Torlakian.
The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.

Esperanto

EsperantistEsperantistsEsperanto language
Esperanto is derived from European languages and therefore all of its roots are found in Proto-Indo-European and cognates can be found in real-world languages like French, German, Italian and English.
However, the article la "the", demonstratives such as tiu "that" and prepositions (such as ĉe "at") must come before their related nouns.

Determiner

determinersdefinite determinerdemonstrative determiners
In English grammar, articles are frequently considered part of a broader category called determiners, which contains articles, demonstratives (such as "this" and "that"), possessive determiners (such as "my" and "his"), and quantifiers (such as "all" and "few"). Generally, articles develop over time usually by specialization of certain adjectives or determiners, and their development is often a sign of languages becoming more analytic instead of synthetic, perhaps combined with the loss of inflection as in English, Romance languages, Bulgarian, Macedonian and Torlakian.
That is, a determiner may indicate whether the noun is referring to a definite or indefinite element of a class, to a closer or more distant element, to an element belonging to a specified person or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc. Common kinds of determiners include definite and indefinite articles (like the English the and a or an), demonstratives (this and that), possessive determiners (my and their), quantifiers (many, few and several), numerals, distributive determiners (each, any), and interrogative determiners (which).

Macedonian language

MacedonianMacedonian CyrillicMacedonian spelling
Most of the languages in this family do not have definite or indefinite articles: there is no article in Latin or Sanskrit, nor in some modern Indo-European languages, such as the families of Slavic languages (except for Bulgarian and Macedonian, which are rather distinctive among the Slavic languages in their grammar) and Baltic languages.
Definiteness is expressed by three definite articles pertaining to the position of the object (unspecified, proximate, and distal), which are suffixed to the noun.