Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticlesindefinite articledefiniteindefinitedefinite articlesgrammatical articledefinite and indefinite articlesdefinite-article
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.wikipedia
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List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender). Within each type, languages may have various forms of each article, due to conforming to grammatical attributes such as gender, number, or case.
This is partly the case in English: every noun is either singular or plural (a few forms, such as "fish", can be either, according to context), and at least some modifiers of nouns—namely the demonstratives, the personal pronouns, the articles, and verbs—are inflected to agree with the number of the nouns to which they refer: "this car" and "these cars" are correct, while "*this cars" or "*these car" are ungrammatical and, therefore, incorrect.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
In English grammar, articles are frequently considered part of a broader category called determiners, which contains articles, demonstratives (such as "this" and "that"), possessive determiners (such as "my" and "his"), and quantifiers (such as "all" and "few").
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article, or determiner.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender). Within each type, languages may have various forms of each article, due to conforming to grammatical attributes such as gender, number, or case.
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.

The Gambia

GambiaGambianRepublic of the Gambia
Similar shifts in usage have occurred in the names of Sudan and both Congo (Brazzaville) and Congo (Kinshasa); a move in the other direction occurred with The Gambia.
Habitually, the definite article is sometimes still used when addressing many other countries, including Ukraine, Netherlands, Philippines, Congo, Sudan, Yemen, Comoros, Central African Republic, Seychelles, Maldives, Solomon Islands, Dominican Republic, Czech Republic, Marshall Islands, United Kingdom, United States of America and Lebanon, with varying degrees of accuracy.

Possessive determiner

possessive adjectivepossessivespossessive adjectives
In English grammar, articles are frequently considered part of a broader category called determiners, which contains articles, demonstratives (such as "this" and "that"), possessive determiners (such as "my" and "his"), and quantifiers (such as "all" and "few").
Possessive determiners, as used in English and some other languages, imply the definite article.

Proper noun

proper namecommon nounproper nouns
In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender).
In English, proper names in their primary application cannot normally be modified by an article or other determiner (such as any or another), although some may be taken to include the article the, as in the Netherlands, the Roaring Forties, or the Rolling Stones.

Epenthesis

epentheticepenthetic vowelsvarabhakti
Articles may also be modified as influenced by adjacent sounds or words as in elision (e.g., French "le" becoming "l'" before a vowel), epenthesis (e.g., English "a" becoming "an" before a vowel), or contraction (e.g. Irish "i + na" becoming "sna").
A similar example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
Articles are found in many Indo-European languages, Semitic languages (only the definite article), and Polynesian languages; however, are formally absent from many of the world's major languages including: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, many Turkic languages (incl.
Nouns have no grammatical number or gender, and there are no articles.

Contraction (grammar)

contractioncontractionscontracted
Articles may also be modified as influenced by adjacent sounds or words as in elision (e.g., French "le" becoming "l'" before a vowel), epenthesis (e.g., English "a" becoming "an" before a vowel), or contraction (e.g. Irish "i + na" becoming "sna").
In informal, spoken German prepositional phrases, one can often merge the preposition and the article; for example, von dem becomes vom, zu dem becomes zum, or an das becomes ans.

Bulgarian language

BulgarianBulgarian:Modern Bulgarian
Most of the languages in this family do not have definite or indefinite articles: there is no article in Latin or Sanskrit, nor in some modern Indo-European languages, such as the families of Slavic languages (except for Bulgarian and Macedonian, which are rather distinctive among the Slavic languages in their grammar), Baltic languages and many Indo-Aryan languages.
The two languages have several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system.

Turkic languages

TurkicTurkic languageTurkic-speaking
Articles are found in many Indo-European languages, Semitic languages (only the definite article), and Polynesian languages; however, are formally absent from many of the world's major languages including: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, many Turkic languages (incl.
Turkic languages are null-subject languages, have vowel harmony, extensive agglutination by means of suffixes and postpositions, and lack of grammatical articles, noun classes, and grammatical gender.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Within each type, languages may have various forms of each article, due to conforming to grammatical attributes such as gender, number, or case.
An example with the feminine definite article with the German word for "woman."

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
Articles may also be modified as influenced by adjacent sounds or words as in elision (e.g., French "le" becoming "l'" before a vowel), epenthesis (e.g., English "a" becoming "an" before a vowel), or contraction (e.g. Irish "i + na" becoming "sna"). It also occurs colloquially or dialectally in Spanish, German, French, Italian and other languages.

Italian grammar

Italianabsolute superlativeGrammar
Italian articles vary according to definiteness (definite, indefinite, and partitive), number, gender, and the initial sound of the subsequent word.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
It also occurs colloquially or dialectally in Spanish, German, French, Italian and other languages.
With four cases and three genders plus plural, there are 16 permutations of case and gender/number of the article (not the nouns), but there are only six forms of the definite article, which together cover all 16 permutations.

Definiteness

definiteindefinitedef.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender).

Catalan grammar

Catalangrammarspelling standardisation
Catalan has two types of article, definite and indefinite.

X-bar theory

X-bar schemaX' theoryX-bar
Linguists interested in X-bar theory causally link zero articles to nouns lacking a determiner.
The word the is a determiner (specifically an article), which at first was believed to be a type of specifier for nouns.

Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageit
It also occurs colloquially or dialectally in Spanish, German, French, Italian and other languages.
There are both indefinite and definite articles in Italian.

Bulgarian grammar

Bulgariangrammarimperative mood
Among these are a sharp reduction in noun inflections—Bulgarian has lost the noun cases but has developed a definite article, which is suffixed at the end of words.

German articles

definite articleGermanGerman article
German articles are used similarly to the English articles, a and the.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
Articles are found in many Indo-European languages, Semitic languages (only the definite article), and Polynesian languages; however, are formally absent from many of the world's major languages including: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, many Turkic languages (incl.
In other words, Chinese has very few grammatical inflections—it possesses no tenses, no voices, no numbers (singular, plural; though there are plural markers, for example for personal pronouns), and only a few articles (i.e., equivalents to "the, a, an" in English).

Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languageca
For example, such use is standard in Portuguese (a Maria, literally: "the Maria"), in Greek and in Catalan (la Núria, el/en Oriol).