Article Four of the United States Constitution

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

Article Four of the United States Constitution outlines the relationship between the various states, as well as the relationship between each state and the United States federal government.

- Article Four of the United States Constitution

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Fugitive slaves in the United States

In the United States, fugitive slaves or runaway slaves were terms used in the 18th and 19th century to describe enslaved people who fled slavery.

Eastman Johnson's A Ride for Liberty – The Fugitive Slaves, 1863, Brooklyn Museum
An animation showing the free/slave status of U.S. states and territories, 1789–1861 (see separate yearly maps below). The American Civil War began in 1861. The 13th Amendment, effective December 1865, abolished slavery in the U.S.
Runaway slave poster
Fugitive slave Gordon during his 1863 medical examination in a Union camp.

The United States Constitution, ratified in 1788, never uses the words "slave" or "slavery", but recognized its existence in the so-called fugitive slave clause (Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3), the three-fifths clause, and the prohibition on prohibiting importation of "such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit" (Article I, Section 9).

Privileges and Immunities Clause

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

The Privileges and Immunities Clause (U.S. Constitution, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1, also known as the Comity Clause) prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.

Territories of the United States

Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions overseen by the U.S. federal government.

The American Samoa Fono
Building where the Supreme Court of Guam is located
San Juan, Puerto Rico
Protestant Cay in Christiansted, U.S. Virgin Islands
Tumon Beach in Guam
Mount Tapochau in the Northern Mariana Islands
Ofu Beach on Ofu Island in American Samoa
Wake Island lagoon
Red-footed booby at Palmyra Atoll
Navy memorial and albatross monument with Laysan albatross chicks at Midway Atoll
The United States from 1868 to 1876, including nine organized and two unorganized (at the time) territories
View of El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico
Hand-drawn map, 2018
alt=Official photo, with American flag|Amata Coleman Radewagen (R), (American Samoa)
alt=Official photo|Michael San Nicolas (D), (Guam)
alt=Official photo|Gregorio Sablan (D), (Northern Mariana Islands)
alt=Official photo|Jenniffer González (R), (Puerto Rico)
alt=Official photo|Stacey Plaskett (D), (U.S. Virgin Islands)
alt=Lemanu Peleti Mauga|Lemanu Peleti Mauga (NP-D), (American Samoa)
alt=Lou Leon Guerrero|Lou Leon Guerrero (D), (Guam)
alt=A smiling Ralph Torres|Ralph Torres (R), (Northern Mariana Islands)
alt=Pedro Pierluisi|Pedro Pierluisi (PNP-D), (Puerto Rico)
alt=Albert Bryan|Albert Bryan (D), (U.S. Virgin Islands)
Tutuila and Aunu'u (American Samoa)
Guam
Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
Puerto Rico
U.S. Virgin Islands
alt=Satellite photo|Baker Island
alt=Satellite photo|Howland Island
alt=Satellite photo|Jarvis Island
alt=Satellite photo|Johnston Atoll
alt=Satellite photo|Kingman Reef
alt=Satellite photo|Midway Atoll
alt=Satellite photo|Navassa Island
alt=Satellite photo|Palmyra Atoll
alt=Satellite photo|Wake Island
American Samoa
Guam
Northern Mariana Islands
Puerto Rico
U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. exclusive economic zone

Organized territories are lands under federal sovereignty (but not part of any state) which were given a measure of self-governance by Congress through an organic act subject to the Congress's plenary powers under the territorial clause of the Constitution's Article Four, section 3.

Admission to the Union

The order in which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the union.
States that were never part of an organized U.S. territory.

Admission to the Union is provided by the Admissions Clause of the United States Constitution in Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1, which authorizes the United States Congress to admit new states into the Union beyond the thirteen states that already existed when the Constitution came into effect.

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

Passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern interests in slavery and Northern Free-Soilers.

An April 24, 1851 poster warning the "colored people of Boston" about policemen acting as slave catchers.
Print by E. W. Clay, an artist who published many proslavery cartoons, supports the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. In the cartoon, a Southerner mocks a Northerner who claims his goods, several bolts of fabric, have been stolen. "They are fugitives from you, are they?" asks the slaver. Adopting the rhetoric of abolitionists, he continues, "As to the law of the land, I have a higher law of my own, and possession is nine points in the law."
James Hamlet, the first man returned to slavery under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, in front of New York City Hall. The banner on the right reads: "A day, an hour, of virtuous liberty is worth an age of servitude".

The earlier Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was a Federal law that was written with the intent to enforce Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, which required the return of escaped enslaved people.

Fugitive Slave Clause

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

The Fugitive Slave Clause in the United States Constitution, also known as either the Slave Clause or the Fugitives From Labor Clause, is Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, which requires a "person held to service or labor" (usually a slave, apprentice, or indentured servant) who flees to another state to be returned to their master in the state from which that person escaped.

Republicanism in the United States

Use of the concept of republic, or the political ideals associated with it in the United States.

The Capitol exalted classical republican virtues

The political ideals have been discussed since before the concept of republic was introduced legally by Article Four of the United States Constitution.

Insular area

[[File:US insular areas SVG.svg|alt=A world map highlighting the several island claims of the United States|thumb|600px|Locations of the insular areas of the United States, color-coded to indicate status

American Samoa
Capitol of Puerto Rico, the largest insular area
Wake Island Lagoon

Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2 of the U.S. Constitution grants to the United States Congress the responsibility of overseeing the territories.

Federal lands

Federal lands are lands in the United States owned by the federal government.

Ownership of federal lands in the 50 states, including subsurface rights. This map includes federal lands land held in trust for Native Americans, which may not be considered federal lands in other contexts.
This map shows land owned by different federal government agencies.

Pursuant to the Property Clause of the United States Constitution (Article 4, section 3, clause 2), the Congress has the power to retain, buy, sell, and regulate federal lands, such as by limiting cattle grazing on them.

Constitution of the United States

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
x120px
"We the People" in an original edition
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
John Jay, 1789–1795
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

Article IV, Article V, and Article VI embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment.