Article Three of the United States Constitution

Article IIIU.S. Const. art. IIIArticle III of the United States ConstitutionArticle III of the ConstitutionArticle III of the U.S. ConstitutionArticle ThreeArticle III, Section 2Exceptions ClauseArticle III, Section 1III
Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.wikipedia
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Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.
Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article One); the executive, consisting of the president (Article Two); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article Three).

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Under Article Three, the judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of the United States, as well as lower courts created by Congress.
Established by Article III of the Constitution, the composition and procedures of the Supreme Court were initially established by the 1st Congress through the Judiciary Act of 1789.

Treason laws in the United States

treasonlaw on treasonpossible treason
Article Three also defines treason.
It was defined in Article III, Section 3 of the United States Constitution.

Article Two of the United States Constitution

Article IIArticle TwoArticle II, Section 1, Clause 6
Along with the Vesting Clauses of Article One and Article Two, Article Three's Vesting Clause establishes the separation of powers between the three branches of government.
Section 1's Vesting Clause declares that the executive power of the federal government is vested in the president and, along with the Vesting Clauses of Article One and Article Three, establishes the separation of powers among

Judiciary Act of 1789

Judiciary Act61789
Section 1 authorizes the creation of inferior courts, but does not require it; the first inferior federal courts were established shortly after the ratification of the Constitution with the Judiciary Act of 1789. The Article III courts, which are also known as "constitutional courts", were first created by the Judiciary Act of 1789, and are the only courts with judicial power.
Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and such inferior Courts" as Congress saw fit to establish.

Article One of the United States Constitution

Article IArticle OneU.S. Const. art. I
Along with the Vesting Clauses of Article One and Article Two, Article Three's Vesting Clause establishes the separation of powers between the three branches of government. Article Three does not set the size of the Supreme Court or establish specific positions on the court, but Article One establishes the position of chief justice.
Similar clauses are found in Articles II and III.

Case or Controversy Clause

case or controversyactual controversycases and controversies
The Case or Controversy Clause restricts the judiciary's power to actual cases and controversies, meaning that federal judicial power does not extend to cases which are hypothetical, or which are proscribed due to standing, mootness, or ripeness issues.
The Supreme Court of the United States has interpreted the Case or Controversy Clause of Article III of the United States Constitution (found in Art.

Juries in the United States

juryjuriestrial by jury in the United States
Section 2 also gives Congress the power to strip the Supreme Court of appellate jurisdiction, and establishes that all federal crimes must be tried before a jury.
In the United States Constitution, juries are mentioned in Article Three and the Fifth, the Sixth, and the Seventh Amendments.

Jurisdiction stripping

carve upcourt strippingcourt-stripping
Section 2 also gives Congress the power to strip the Supreme Court of appellate jurisdiction, and establishes that all federal crimes must be tried before a jury.
This court-creating power is granted both in the congressional powers clause (Art. I, § 8, Cl. 9) and in the judicial vesting clause (Art. III, § 1).

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief JusticeChief Justice of the United States Supreme CourtChief Justice of the Supreme Court
Article Three does not set the size of the Supreme Court or establish specific positions on the court, but Article One establishes the position of chief justice.
Article III, Section 1, which authorizes the establishment of the Supreme Court, refers to all members of the Court simply as "judges".

Mootness

mootmootedmoot point
The Case or Controversy Clause restricts the judiciary's power to actual cases and controversies, meaning that federal judicial power does not extend to cases which are hypothetical, or which are proscribed due to standing, mootness, or ripeness issues.
The reason for this is that Article Three of the United States Constitution limits the jurisdiction of all federal courts to "cases and controversies".

Federal judiciary of the United States

federal courtfederal courtsUnited States federal court
The Supreme Court is the only federal court that is explicitly established by the Constitution.
Article III of the Constitution requires the establishment of a Supreme Court and permits the Congress to create other federal courts, and place limitations on their jurisdiction.

Appellate jurisdiction

appellateappellate civil and criminal jurisdictionAppellate side
Section 2 gives the Supreme Court original jurisdiction when ambassadors, public officials, or the states are a party in the case, leaving the Supreme Court with appellate jurisdiction in all other areas to which the federal judiciary's jurisdiction extends.
Under Article Three of the United States Constitution, the judicial power of the United States is vested in the Supreme Court of the United States and the inferior courts established by law.

Federal tribunals in the United States

Article III judgesArticle I and Article III tribunalsArticle III judge
The Article III courts, which are also known as "constitutional courts", were first created by the Judiciary Act of 1789, and are the only courts with judicial power.
They constitute the judicial branch of the federal government (which is defined by Article III of the Constitution).

United States district court

U.S. District Courtfederal district courtdistrict court
This article was expressly extended to the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico by the U.S. Congress through Federal Law 89-571, 80 Stat.
In contrast to the Supreme Court, which was established by Article III of the Constitution, the district courts were established by Congress.

Judicial review in the United States

judicial reviewstruck downreview
Section 2 does not expressly grant the federal judiciary the power of judicial review, but the courts have exercised this power since the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison.
Rather, the power to declare laws unconstitutional has been deemed an implied power, derived from Article III and Article VI.

Original jurisdiction

originalcourt of first instanceoriginal action
Section 2 gives the Supreme Court original jurisdiction when ambassadors, public officials, or the states are a party in the case, leaving the Supreme Court with appellate jurisdiction in all other areas to which the federal judiciary's jurisdiction extends.
[[Article Three of the United States Constitution#Clause 2: Original and appellate jurisdiction|Article III, Section 2]] of the United States Constitution and Title 28 of the United States Code, section 1251.

United States territorial court

territorial courtsterritorial courtUnited States territorial courts
This transformed the article IV United States territorial court in Puerto Rico, created in 1900, to an Article III federal judicial district court.
"United States district courts", created under Article III of the U.S. Constitution, exist only in United States federal judicial districts, which are found only in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

Federal government of the United States

United States governmentU.S. governmentfederal government
Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.
The Bankruptcy Courts are "under" the supervision of the district courts, and, as such, are not considered part of the "Article III" judiciary and also as such their judges do not have lifetime tenure, nor are they Constitutionally exempt from diminution of their remuneration.

Standing (law)

standinglegal standinglocus standi
The Case or Controversy Clause restricts the judiciary's power to actual cases and controversies, meaning that federal judicial power does not extend to cases which are hypothetical, or which are proscribed due to standing, mootness, or ripeness issues.
Some are based on the case or controversy requirement of the judicial power of Article Three of the United States Constitution, § 2, cl.1.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
During the Constitutional Convention, a proposal was made for the Supreme Court to be the only federal court, having both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
Judges were to hold office "during good behavior", and the Senate would appoint them.

United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico

District of Puerto RicoU.S. District Court for the District of Puerto RicoD.P.R.
This article was expressly extended to the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico by the U.S. Congress through Federal Law 89-571, 80 Stat.
As such, the court was established under Article IV rather than Article III of the United States Constitution.

Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution

Eleventh Amendment11th AmendmentU.S. Const. amend. XI
This decision was overturned by the Eleventh Amendment, which was passed by the Congress on March 4, 1794 and ratified by the states on February 7, 1795.
Thus, the amendment clarified Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution, which gives diversity jurisdiction to the judiciary to hear cases "between a state and citizens of another state".

Diversity jurisdiction

diversitydiversity of citizenshipdiversity cases
In Chisholm v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled that Article III, Section 2 abrogated the States' sovereign immunity and authorized federal courts to hear disputes between private citizens and States.
The United States Constitution, in [[Article III of the United States Constitution#Section 2: Judicial power, jurisdiction, and trial by jury|Article III, § 2]], gives the Congress the power to permit federal courts to hear diversity cases through legislation authorizing such jurisdiction.

Vesting Clauses

Vesting ClausevestsArticle I, Section1
Along with the Vesting Clauses of Article One and Article Two, Article Three's Vesting Clause establishes the separation of powers between the three branches of government.
Article III, Section 1: