Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticlesArticles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Articles 5,9,10Articles of Confederation and the Perpetual UnionArticles of Confederation of November 15, 1777Confederation CongressConfederation Congress of the United StatesConfederation Period
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.wikipedia
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United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America. The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
This became the Constitutional Convention.
Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.

Second Continental Congress

Continental CongressCongressSecond
It was approved, after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification. In 1775, with events outpacing communications, the Second Continental Congress began acting as the provisional government.
During this period, its achievements included: successfully managing the war effort; drafting the Articles of Confederation, the first U.S. Constitution; securing diplomatic recognition and support from foreign nations; and resolving state land claims west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
On March 4, 1789, the government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the Constitution.
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States.

Shays' Rebellion

Shays's RebellionShays RebellionShays’ Rebellion
As the government's weaknesses became apparent, especially after Shays' Rebellion, some prominent political thinkers in the fledgling nation began asking for changes to the Articles.
The widely held view was that the Articles of Confederation needed to be reformed as the country's governing document, and the events of the rebellion served as a catalyst for the Constitutional Convention and the creation of the new government.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. PresidentUnited States President
The new Constitution provided for a much stronger federal government by establishing a chief executive (the President), courts, and taxing powers.
Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Prior to these events each state had been a British colony; each then joined the first Union of states between 1777 and 1781, upon ratifying the Articles of Confederation, the first U.S. constitution.

Provisional government

interim governmenttransitional governmentprovisional
In 1775, with events outpacing communications, the Second Continental Congress began acting as the provisional government.
The government shed its provisional status in 1781, following ratification of the Articles of Confederation, and continued until it was supplanted by the United States Congress in 1789.

Richard Henry Lee

Richard LeeFrancis Lightfoot Lee IILee
On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution before the Continental Congress declaring the colonies independent; at the same time he also urged Congress to resolve "to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances" and to prepare a plan of confederation for the newly independent states.
He also served a one-year term as the President of the Continental Congress, was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation, and was a United States Senator from Virginia from 1789 to 1792, serving during part of that time as the second President pro tempore of the upper house.

York, Pennsylvania

YorkYork, PAYork, Pa.
To further complicate work on the constitution, Congress was forced to leave Philadelphia twice, for Baltimore, Maryland in the winter of 1776, and later for Lancaster then York, Pennsylvania in the fall of 1777, to evade advancing British troops.
The Articles of Confederation was drafted and adopted in York, though they were not ratified until March 1781.

Perpetual Union

Unionperpetuate the new Unionperpetuate the union
The document also stipulates that its provisions "shall be inviolably observed by every state" and that "the Union shall be perpetual".
The Perpetual Union is a feature of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, which established the United States of America as a national entity.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceAmerican Declaration of IndependenceU.S. Declaration of Independence
Congress then created three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, a model treaty, and the Articles of Confederation.
John Dickinson made one last effort to delay the decision, arguing that Congress should not declare independence without first securing a foreign alliance and finalizing the Articles of Confederation.

Model Treaty

plan of treaties
Congress then created three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, a model treaty, and the Articles of Confederation.
On June 11, 1776, the Continental Congress resolved to create three committees, one for drafting the Declaration of Independence, one for drafting the Articles of Confederation, and one for drafting a "Model Treaty" to guide foreign relations.

Central government

national governmentfederalcentral
The weak central government established by the Articles received only those powers which the former colonies had recognized as belonging to king and parliament.
After declaring independence from Britain, the U.S. adopted its first constitution, the Articles of Confederation in 1781.

New York (state)

New YorkNew York StateNY
While it didn't happen under the articles, the land north of the Ohio River and west of the (present) western border of Pennsylvania ceded by Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, eventually became the states of: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and the part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi River.
New York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, the first national government.

Pennsylvania

PACommonwealth of PennsylvaniaPa.
While it didn't happen under the articles, the land north of the Ohio River and west of the (present) western border of Pennsylvania ceded by Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, eventually became the states of: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and the part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi River. In 1783, George Washington defused the Newburgh conspiracy, but riots by unpaid Pennsylvania veterans forced Congress to leave Philadelphia temporarily.
There they and its primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent States into a new union.

Congress of the Confederation

Confederation CongressCongressContinental Congress
It was preceded by the Second Continental Congress (1775–1781) and was created by the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union in 1781.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
The political push to increase cooperation among the then-loyal colonies began with the Albany Congress in 1754 and Benjamin Franklin's proposed Albany Plan, an inter-colonial collaboration to help solve mutual local problems.
While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.

Massachusetts

MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
While it didn't happen under the articles, the land north of the Ohio River and west of the (present) western border of Pennsylvania ceded by Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, eventually became the states of: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and the part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi River.
The rebellion was one of the major factors in the decision to draft a stronger national constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation.

United States Secretary of War

Secretary of WarU.S. Secretary of WarUS Secretary of War
General Henry Knox, who would later become the first Secretary of War under the Constitution, blamed the weaknesses of the Articles for the inability of the government to fund the army.
A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War", had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789.

Albany Congress

Albany ConferenceAlbany ConventionAlbany Purchase of 1754
The political push to increase cooperation among the then-loyal colonies began with the Albany Congress in 1754 and Benjamin Franklin's proposed Albany Plan, an inter-colonial collaboration to help solve mutual local problems.
Many elements of the plan were later the basis for the American government established by the Articles of Confederation of 1777 and the Constitution of 1787.

Maryland

MDState of MarylandMaryland, USA
New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland could not, since their states had not ratified.
Near the end of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), on February 2, 1781, Maryland became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, first proposed in 1776 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1778, which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state.

Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture

courts for appeals in all cases of captures
Although specific express power to establish the Court was granted to Congress in the Articles of Confederation, the Articles of Confederation were not yet fully ratified by all thirteen of the original states when Congress established the Court on January 15, 1780.

Lee Resolution

resolution of independenceresolutiona resolution
On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution before the Continental Congress declaring the colonies independent; at the same time he also urged Congress to resolve "to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances" and to prepare a plan of confederation for the newly independent states.
The final draft of the Articles of Confederation was prepared during the summer of 1777 and approved by Congress for ratification by the individual states on November 15, 1777, after a year of debate.

John Jay

Chief Justice John JayJayfirst Chief Justice of the United States
In 1779, George Washington wrote to John Jay, who was serving as the president of the Continental Congress, "that a wagon load of money will scarcely purchase a wagon load of provisions."
Following the end of the war, Jay served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, directing United States foreign policy under the Articles of Confederation government.