Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
1977 13-cent U.S. Postage stamp commemorating the Articles of Confederation bicentennial; the draft was completed on November 15, 1777
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
The Act of the Maryland legislature to ratify the Articles of Confederation, February 2, 1781
New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) tribes.
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Preamble to Art. V, Sec. 1
New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660
"We the People" in an original edition
Art. V, Sec. 2 to Art. VI
New York and neighboring provinces, by Claude Joseph Sauthier, 1777
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
Art. VII to Art. IX, Sec. 2
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
Art. IX, Sec. 2 to Sec. 5
1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia
John Jay, 1789–1795
Art. IX, Sec. 5 to Art. XIII, Sec. 2
The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Art. XIII, Sec. 2 to signatures
Flight 175 hitting the South Tower on September11, 2001
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
Flooding on AvenueC in Lower Manhattan caused by Hurricane Sandy
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
New York is bordered by six U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to about eleven million residents conjointly.
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
José Rizal
Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).
Sun Yat-sen
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
Map of the counties in New York
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City and Long Island.
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement
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The main laboratory building of the IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights, New York.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections
"I Love New York"
CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, the largest container ship to enter the Port of New York and New Jersey as of September7, 2017
Harris Hall of the City College of New York, a public college of the City University of New York
Butler Library at Columbia University
University of Rochester
South campus of the University at Buffalo, the flagship of the State University of New York
The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving more than five million passengers per average weekday.
Grand Central Terminal in New York City
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
The New York State Capitol in Albany
New York State Court of Appeals
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators
Kathy Hochul (D), the 57th Governor of New York
Yankee Stadium in The Bronx
Koppen climate of New York

It superseded the Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution.

- Constitution of the United States

On March 4, 1789, the government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the Constitution.

- Articles of Confederation

New York became the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788.

- New York (state)

Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, under the name of Publius, wrote a series of commentaries, now known as The Federalist Papers, in support of ratification in the state of New York, at that time a hotbed of anti-Federalism.

- Constitution of the United States

New York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, the first national government.

- New York (state)

While it didn't happen under the articles, the land north of the Ohio River and west of the (present) western border of Pennsylvania ceded by Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, eventually became the states of: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and the part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi River.

- Articles of Confederation
Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

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Portrait by John Trumbull, 1806

Alexander Hamilton

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American revolutionary, statesman and Founding Father of the United States.

American revolutionary, statesman and Founding Father of the United States.

Portrait by John Trumbull, 1806
Coat of arms of the Hamiltons of Grange in Ayrshire, Scotland.
The Hamilton House, Charlestown, Nevis. The current structure was rebuilt from the ruins of the house where it was thought that Alexander Hamilton was born and lived as a young child.
Hamilton in his youth
Kings College c. 1756, adjacent to the New York Commons where City Hall Park is today
Alexander Hamilton in the Uniform of the New York Artillery, by Alonzo Chappel (1828–1887)
Aides-de-camp's office inside Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge. General Washington's staff officers worked in this room, writing and copying the letters and orders of the Continental Army.
The Storming of Redoubt #10, an 1840 painting by Eugene Lami
Detail of Surrender of Lord Cornwallis by John Trumbull, showing Colonels Alexander Hamilton, John Laurens, and Walter Stewart
Miniature of Hamilton attributed to Charles Shirreff, c. 1790
A Turban Head eagle, one of the first gold coins minted under the Coinage Act of 1792
A painting of a Revenue Marine cutter, which may be of either the Massachusetts (1791), or its replacement, the Massachusetts II
Portrait of Alexander Hamilton by Walter Robertson. Circa 1794
A statue of Hamilton by Franklin Simmons, overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey, where Hamilton envisioned using the falls to power new factories
The Jay Treaty
Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792
Aaron Burr, Hamilton and Philip Schuyler strolling on Wall Street, New York, 1790
Alexander Hamilton by William J. Weaver, ca. 1794-1806
A statue of Hamilton in the United States Capitol rotunda
Detail of 1802 portrait by Ezra Ames, painted after death of Hamilton's eldest son Philip
Hamilton's tomb in Trinity Church's first burial grounds at Wall Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan
Drawing (c. 1902) of the Burr–Hamilton duel, from a painting by J. Mund
This July 25, 1804 article reflected extreme lamentation over Hamilton's death, and described the plan for his funeral procession and other tributes, including a 30-day wearing of a commemorative black armband ("crape") by members of the Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania of which Hamilton had been President General.
Elizabeth Schuyler, portrait by Ralph Earl
Distinctive unit insignia of the United States Army 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment (i.e. Alexander Hamilton Battery). The crest at center is that of Clan Hamilton, with the addition of 13 gold acorns representing the original 13 states.
USCGC Hamilton (WMSL 753) seal. The two colors on the coat of arms represent the aspects of Alexander Hamilton's life: military and civilian. The white demarcation line is a virtual diagram of the trenches converging on the British redoubt #10 at Yorktown. Surmounting the crossed bayonets symbolizing Hamilton's taking of the redoubt is a Doric column which represents Hamilton's service as a statesman. The crest shows an ermine cinquefoil, which is the principal charge on the Hamilton family coat of arms and is worn by a unicorn, taken from the hand-carved powder horn Hamilton is believed to have owned. The motto, "Vigilant Sentinel," is derived from a quote in Federalist No. 12: "A few armed vessels, judiciously stationed at the entrance of our ports, might at a small expense be made useful sentinels of the law."
A starboard view of the nuclear-powered strategic missile submarine USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617) underway.
Alexander Hamilton on the Series 2004A U.S. $10 bill
$2
$5
$10
$20
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$1,000
Hamilton stamp, 1870 issue
The Hamilton Grange National Memorial in St. Nicholas Park
A statue of Hamilton outside Hamilton Hall, overlooking Hamilton Lawn at Columbia University in New York City
The Hamilton statue in Central Park
Image of the statue of Alexander Hamilton created by William Ordway Partridge, commissioned for the Hamilton Club of Brooklyn. The statue later stood in front of Hamilton Grange when the house was located at 287 Convent Ave.
A view of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge from the south
Lin-Manuel Miranda performs the title role in the 2015 musical Hamilton.
USCGC Hamilton (WMSL 753) seal. The two colors on the coat of arms represent the aspects of Alexander Hamilton's life: military and civilian. The white demarcation line is a virtual diagram of the trenches converging on the British redoubt #10 at Yorktown. Surmounting the crossed bayonets symbolizing Hamilton's taking of the redoubt is a Doric column which represents Hamilton's service as a statesman. The crest shows an ermine cinquefoil, which is the principal charge on the Hamilton family coat of arms and is worn by a unicorn, taken from the hand-carved powder horn Hamilton is believed to have owned. The motto, "Vigilant Sentinel," is derived from a quote in Federalist No. 12: "A few armed vessels, judiciously stationed at the entrance of our ports, might at a small expense be made useful sentinels of the law."

He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U.S. Constitution, and was the founder of the Federalist Party, the nation's financial system, the United States Coast Guard, and the New York Post newspaper.

After the war, he was elected as a representative from New York to the Congress of the Confederation.

Hamilton was a leader in seeking to replace the weak confederal government under the Articles of Confederation; he led the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which spurred Congress to call a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where he then served as a delegate from New York.

John Jay, by Gilbert Stuart, 1794

John Jay

2 links

American statesman, patriot, diplomat, Founding Father, abolitionist, negotiator, and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

American statesman, patriot, diplomat, Founding Father, abolitionist, negotiator, and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

John Jay, by Gilbert Stuart, 1794
John Jay, by Gilbert Stuart, 1794
Drawing of Sarah Jay by Robert Edge Pine.
Jay's childhood home in Rye, New York is a New York State Historic Site and Westchester County Park
Jay's retirement home near Katonah, New York is a New York State Historic Site
The Treaty of Paris, by Benjamin West (1783) (Jay stands farthest to the left). The British delegation refused to pose for the painting, leaving it unfinished.
Jay as he appears at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
The Jay Treaty.
Gubernatorial portrait of Jay.
Certificate of Election of Jay as Governor of New York (June 6, 1795)
John Jay 15¢ Liberty Issue postage stamp, 1958.
Rye, New York Post Office Dedication Stamp and cancellation, September 5, 1936

He directed U.S. foreign policy for much of the 1780s and was an important leader of the Federalist Party after the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788.

Following the end of the war, Jay served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, directing United States foreign policy under the Articles of Confederation government.

Jay served as the governor of New York from 1795 to 1801.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

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The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787.

The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787.

Independence Hall's Assembly Room
James Madison, the author of the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
Charles Pinckney Plan
Edmund Randolph, the Governor of Virginia, introduced the Virginia Plan
James Wilson's ideas shaped the American presidency more than any other delegate
New Jersey Plan
Hamilton's Plan
Roger Sherman of Connecticut
Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania
Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy (1940)
U.S. Postage, Issue of 1937, depicting Delegates at the signing of the Constitution, engraving after a painting by Junius Brutus Stearns
Quaker John Dickinson argued forcefully against slavery during the convention. Once Delaware's largest slaveholder, he had freed all of his slaves by 1787.

Although the convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new Frame of Government rather than fix the existing one.

The result of the convention was the creation of the Constitution of the United States, placing the Convention among the most significant events in American history.

New York

Annapolis Convention (1786)

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The Annapolis Convention, formally titled as a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government, was a national political convention held September 11–14, 1786 at Mann's Tavern in Annapolis, Maryland, in which twelve delegates from five U.S. states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) gathered to discuss and develop a consensus on reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected.

At the time, under the Articles of Confederation, each state was largely independent from the others, and the national government had no authority to regulate trade between and among the states.

The direct result of the Annapolis Convention's report and the ensuing events was the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, when the United States Constitution was drafted.

President of the United States

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Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

George Washington, the first president of the United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a radio address, 1933
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr. and others look on
President Donald Trump delivers his 2018 State of the Union Address, with Vice President Mike Pence and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan
President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Gorbachev sign the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord in the White House.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, successfully preserved the Union during the American Civil War.
President Barack Obama with his Supreme Court appointee Justice Sotomayor, 2009
President Ronald Reagan reviews honor guards during a state visit to China, 1984
President Woodrow Wilson throws out the ceremonial first ball on Opening Day, 1916
President Jimmy Carter (left) debates Republican nominee Ronald Reagan on October 28, 1980.
Map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated following the 2010 census to each state and the District of Columbia for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections; it also notes that Maine and Nebraska distribute electors by way of the congressional district method. 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 votes possible.
Franklin D. Roosevelt won a record four presidential elections (1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944), leading to the adoption of a two-term limit.
President William McKinley and his successor, Theodore Roosevelt
President Reagan surrounded by Secret Service
From left: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Photo taken in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009; Obama formally took office thirteen days later.
Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum in Dallas, 2013
White House, the official residence
Camp David, the official retreat
Blair House, the official guest house
The presidential limousine, dubbed "The Beast"
The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is on board
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard

Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.

New York offered the greatest exception, having a strong, unitary governor with veto and appointment power elected to a three-year term, and eligible for reelection to an indefinite number of terms thereafter.

It was through the closed-door negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U.S. Constitution emerged.

Continental Congress

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Series of legislative bodies, with some executive function, for thirteen of Britain's colonies in North America, and the newly declared United States just before, during, and after the American Revolutionary War.

Series of legislative bodies, with some executive function, for thirteen of Britain's colonies in North America, and the newly declared United States just before, during, and after the American Revolutionary War.

The term "Continental Congress" most specifically refers to the First and Second Congresses of 1774–1781 and, at the time, was also used to refer to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789, which operated as the first national government of the United States until being replaced under the Constitution of the United States.

In March 1781, the nation's first Frame of Government, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, came into force, at which time the body became what later was called the Congress of the Confederation.

1) The passage of the Northwest Ordinance in 1787. This ordinance accepted the abolition of all claims to the land west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio River by the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, and the ordinance established Federal control over all of this land in the Northwest Territory—with the goal that several new states should be created there. In the course of time, this land was divided over the course of many decades into Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.

United States Declaration of Independence

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Pronouncement and founding document adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on July 4, 1776.

Pronouncement and founding document adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on July 4, 1776.

Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the Declaration, as painted by Rembrandt Peale
The 13 states at the Declaration of Independence
The Assembly Room in Philadelphia's Independence Hall, where the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence
Writing the Declaration of Independence, 1776, an idealized depiction of Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson working on the Declaration was widely reprinted (by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, 1900).
Portable writing desk that Jefferson used to draft and finalize the Declaration of Independence
"Declaration House", the reconstructed boarding house at Market and S. 7th Street in Philadelphia, where Jefferson wrote the Declaration
The opening of the original printing of the Declaration, printed on July 4, 1776, under Jefferson's supervision. The engrossed copy was made later (shown at the top of this article). The opening lines differ between the two versions.
English political philosopher John Locke (1632–1704)
The signed copy of the Declaration is now badly faded because of poor preserving practices in the 19th century. It is on display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
The Syng inkstand, which was used at both the 1776 signing of the Declaration and the 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution, is on display in Philadelphia
On July 4, 1776, Continental Congress President John Hancock's signature authenticated the United States Declaration of Independence.
Johannes Adam Simon Oertel's painting Pulling Down the Statue of King George III, N.Y.C., ca. 1859, depicts citizens destroying a statue of King George after the Declaration was read in New York City on July 9, 1776.
William Whipple, signer of the Declaration of Independence, manumitted his slave, believing that he could not both fight for liberty and own slaves.
The Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom in the National Archives building
a new broadside
John Trumbull's famous 1818 painting is often identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration, but it actually shows the drafting committee presenting its work to the Congress.
United States two-dollar bill (reverse)
Congressman Abraham Lincoln, 1845–1846
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her two sons (1848)

This view was notably promoted by Lincoln, who considered the Declaration to be the foundation of his political philosophy and argued that it is a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted.

John Dickinson made one last effort to delay the decision, arguing that Congress should not declare independence without first securing a foreign alliance and finalizing the Articles of Confederation.

Later in 1776, a group of 547 Loyalists, largely from New York, signed a Declaration of Dependence pledging their loyalty to the Crown.